NanoPi R2S Plus

From FriendlyELEC WiKi
Jump to: navigation, search



1 Introduction

w/ Wi-Fi

The NanoPi R2S PLUS is a FriendlyElec mini-router with edge-computing and dual Gbps Ethernet ports.

The NanoPi R2S PLUS uses Rockchip's quad-core A53 RK3328 SoC with powerful performance. Its default frequency is 1.2GHz. The NanoPi R2S PLUS has 1GB RAM, 32G eMMC flash, dual Gbps Ethernet ports, a GPIO connector etc. It uses RK805 PMU chip and supports dynamic frequency scaling. It has two USB 2.0 port that can interface with 4G modules, USB HD cameras, USB WiFi modules etc.

The NanoPi R2S Plus can be optionally equipped with an RTL8822CS WiFi module (SDIO Interface), which can work in AP mode or wireless repeater mode for wireless range expansion.

The NanoPi R2S Plus suppors TF card booting. It works with FriendlyWrt, OpenMediaVault, Debian Core and Ubuntu core etc. These systems are based on Linux-6.1(LTS). The NanoPi R2S Plus is powered through USB Type-C. It is a good choice for applications that need to be deployed in compact space and need strong networking performance.

2 Hardware Spec

  • CPU: Rockchip RK3328, Quad-core Cortex-A53
  • DDR4 RAM: 1GB
  • Flash: 32GB eMMC 5.1 Flash
  • Network:
    • 1 x Internal 10/100/1000M Ethernet
    • 1 x USB 3.0 converted 10/100/1000M Ethernet
    • Optional M.2 SDIO Wi-Fi
  • 2 x USB 2.0 Host Type-A
  • 1 x microSD Slot
  • USB-C Power: 5V power input and USB update in maskrom mode
  • USB-C Bebug: onboard USB to Debug UART converter, 1500000bps bauds
  • 3 x LED, for WAN, LAN and SYSTEM
  • 1 x GPIO Button, 1 x Maskrom mode button
  • PCB Size: 58*58*1.6mm
  • Power Supply: DC 5V/2A
  • Temperature measuring range: 0℃ to 70℃
  • OS/Software: U-boot,Ubuntu-Core,OpenWrt

  • Network Transmission Rates
WAN 941 Mbps 941 Mbps
LAN 941 Mbps 941 Mbps
Notes: 1. test utility: iperf
2. use indepedent IP address section and test with a PC in simplex communication mode

3 Diagram, Layout and Dimension

3.1 Layout

NanoPi R2S Plus Layout

For more details refer to:NanoPi_R2S_Plus_2309_SCH.PDF

4 Get Started

4.1 Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi R2S Plus get the following items ready

  • NanoPi R2S Plus
  • MicroSD Card/TF Card: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • 5V/2A and above USB Type-C interface power adapter
  • If you need to develop and compile,you need a computer that can connect to the Internet. It is recommended to install Ubuntu 20.04 64-bit system and use the following script to initialize the development environment, or use docker container:

4.2 TF Cards We Tested

Refer to: TFCardsWeTested

4.3 Configure parameters for serial port

Use the following serial parameters:

Baud rate 1500000
Data bit 8
Parity check None
Stop bit 1
Flow control None

4.4 Install OS

4.4.1 Downloads Official image

Visit download link to download official image files (in the "01_Official images" directory).
The table below lists all official images, the word 'XYZ' in image filename meaning:

  • sd: Use it when you need to boot the entire OS from the SD card
  • eflasher: Use it when you need to flash the OS to eMMC via TF card
  • usb: Use it when you need to flash the OS to eMMC via USB
Icon Image Filename Version Description Kernel Version
Debian-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-debian-bullseye-core-6.1-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz bullseye Debian 11(Bullseye) Core, No desktop environment, command line only 6.1.y
Ubuntu-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlycore-focal-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz focal 64-bit FriendlyCore image file(Qt 5.10.0) based on Ubuntu core 20.04 64bit 4.19.y
Ubuntu-icon.svg focal 64-bit FriendlyCore Lite image file based on Ubuntu core 20.04 64bit 6.1.y
Openmediavault250.png rk3328-XYZ-openmediavault-6.1-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Shaitan OpenMediaVault NAS system, base on Debian 11, already built-in Docker. 6.1.y
Linux-tux.svg rk3328-XYZ-buildroot-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz -- Buildroot image file with Qt5-wayland (base on Rockchip Linux SDK) 4.19.y
Openwrt-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz 21.02 FriendlyWrt, based on OpenWrt 21.02 6.1.y
Openwrt-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz 21.02 FriendlyWrt with Docker, based on OpenWrt 21.02 6.1.y
Openwrt-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlywrt-23.05-YYYYMMDD.img.gz 23.05 FriendlyWrt, based on OpenWrt 23.05 6.1.y
Openwrt-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlywrt-23.05-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz 23.05 FriendlyWrt with Docker, based on OpenWrt 23.05 6.1.y
Other Image
Openwrt-icon.svg Github Actions - FriendlyWrt 21.02,23.05 FriendlyWrt 6.1.y
Linux-tux.svg rk3328-XYZ-multiple-os-YYYYMMDD-25g.img.gz - It contains multiple OS image files, making it convenient for testing different operating systems Tools (optional)

Visit download link to download tools (in the "05_Tools" directory).

Filename Description
win32diskimager.rar This program is designed to write a raw disk image to a removable device or backup a removable device to a raw image file
SD Card Formatter A program (application) that allows easy and quick clear the SD card Rockchip flashing tool, for USB upgrade

4.4.2 Flashing the OS to the microSD card

Follow the steps below:

  • Get an 8G microSD card;
  • Visit download linkto download image files (in the "01_Official images/01_SD card images" directory);
  • Download the win32diskimager tool (in the "05_Tools" directory), or use your preferred tool;
  • Extract the .gz format compressed file to get the .img format image file;
  • Run the win32diskimager utility under Windows as administrator. On the utility's main window select your SD card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the SD card.
  • Take out the SD and insert it to NanoPi-R2S-Plus's microSD card slot;
  • Power on NanoPi-R2S-Plus and it will be booted from your TF card, some models may require pressing the Power button to start;

4.4.3 Install OS to eMMC Option 1: Install OS via TF Card

This method firstly boots a mini Linux from a TF card and then automatically runs an EFlasher utility to install the OS to eMMC. You can connect your system to an HDMI monitor and watch its progress.
This is optional. You can watch its progress by observing its LEDs as well:

By default, flashing starts automatically upon power-up, so be sure to back up the data in eMMC. If you don't want it to start automatically, you can use image file with a filename containing the words 'multiple-os' and manually select the OS you want to flash on the interface. Flash Official OS to eMMC

Follow the steps below:

  • Get an SDHC card with a minimum capacity of 8G
  • Visit download linkto download image files (in the "01_Official images/02_SD-to-eMMC images" directory) and win32diskimager tool (in the "05_Tools" directory);
  • Extract the .gz format compressed file to get the .img format image file;
  • Run the win32diskimager utility under Windows as administrator. On the utility's main window select your SD card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the SD card.
  • Eject your SD card and insert it to NanoPi-R2S-Plus’s microSD card slot.
  • Turn on NanoPi-R2S-Plus, it will boot from the SD card and automatically run EFlasher to install the OS to the board’s eMMC.
  • After flashing is complete, eject the SD card from NanoPi-R2S-Plus, NanoPi-R2S-Plus will automatically reboot and boot from eMMC. Flash third party OS (Image file) to eMMC
  • Auto Install (Default Behavior)

1) Download an “eflasher” firmware from network drive(in the "01_Official images/02_SD-to-eMMC images" directory), extract it and install it to a TF card ;
2) Eject and insert the TF card to your PC, after a “FriendlyARM” device shows up(Under Linux, it is a “FriendlyARM” directory), copy an .img or .gz file to the TF card.
3) Open the eflasher.conf file on the TF card, set “autoStart=” to the name of your image file, such as:


In addition to third-party image, official image files which with the '-sd-' word in the filename are also supported, for example: rk3NNN-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz
4) Eject the TF card, insert the TF card to NanoPi-R2S-Plus, power it on it will automatically install your firmware. You can watch the installation progress by observing the LEDs’ status. Option 2: Install OS on Web Page

Get a TF card which has been installed with FriendlyWrt, log in FriendlyWrt on the web page, click on “System” ->”eMMC Tools”. Click on “Select file” to select your wanted image file, either an official image (filename containing '-sd-') or a third party image. The file should be a “.gz” or “.img” file.
After a file is selected, click on “Upload and Write” to start installing an OS.
After installation is done, eject the SD card, the system will automatically reboot and load the OS from eMMC. After the OS begins to load, if the system LED is flashing and the network LED is on, it means the the OS has loaded successfully. If the OS is FriendlyWrt, you can click on “Go to Homepage” to enter the homepage.
For official OS, you need select the file with the filename containing '-sd-', for example: rk3NNN-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz, the compression file only supports the .gz format. If the file is too large, you can compress it into .gz format before uploading. Option 3: Install OS via USB Step 1: Install USB Driver and Tools/Utilities

Download a driver file under the “tools” directory from network drive, extract and install it.
Under the same directory, download a utility and extract it. Step 2: Connect NanoPi-R2S-Plus to PC and Enter Installation Mode

1) Disconnect the connected USB cable and the power cord from NanoPi-R2S-Plus, eject the TF card;
2) Press and hold the “Mask” key, Use a USB C-to-A cable, connect NanoPi-R2S-Plus to a PC,After the status LED has been on for at least 3 seconds, release the Mask key:
R2SPLUS-usbflash.jpg Step 3: Install image to eMMC

A firmware in general is packaged in either of the two options: the first is an whole image (ie, update.img) which is often offered by third party developers, the second is that an image is packaged and placed in multiple partition images. FriendlyElec offers an image in the latter option.

  • Option 1: Install whole image (ie, update.img)

On a PC which has the extracted RKDevTool_Release_v2.84 utility, go to the RKDevTool_Release_v2.84 directory, run the RKDevTool.exe file. If everything works, you will see a “Found a new Maskrom device” message on the utility;
Go to “Upgrade Firmware(升级固件)”, click on “Firmware(固件)”, select your wanted image file, and click on “Upgrade(升级)” to install. After installation is done, your board will reboot automatically and load the system from eMMC;

  • Option 2: Install OS that is packaged & placed in multiple partition images

Go to network drive to download your needed package and extract it (in the "01_Official images/03_USB upgrade images). After it is extracted, you will see some utilities and a configuration file under the directory. double click on RKDevTool.exe, you will see a “Found a new Maskrom device” message on the utility. Click on the “Execute”, wait a moment and it will be installed. After installation is done your system will automatically reboot and load the system from eMMC.

4.5 The Boot order between eMMC and SD card

By default, the system will be booted from the TF card first, but this is not the case under all conditions. This section will explain all situations in detail;

Refer to rockchip official document [1], there are two types of loader program:
1) U-Boot TPL/SPL (i.e. upsream U-Boot, also called mainline U-Boot)
2) Rockchip MiniLoader

Things to note:
1) FriendlyELEC's image uses Rockchip MiniLoader
2) The third-party image usually uses U-Boot TPL/SPL

The following situations will always start from eMMC:
If the system in the eMMC, or the system in the TF card uses the first Loader type U-Boot TPL/SPL, it will always boot from the eMMC;
If you want to boot from the TF card, there are the following methods:
Method 1: Clear the Loader on the eMMC, the clearing method is as follows, after starting from the eMMC, enter the following command on the command line to clear the Loader on the eMMC:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mmcblk2 bs=8M count=1

Method 2: Insert the TF card, Press Maskrom Key (or short-circuit the Maskrom contacts) and then power on (need to keep the short-circuit for about 3 seconds), it will start from the TF card

The summary is as follows:

eMMC current system TF card current system Boot priority
No system Any image TF card
FriendlyELEC's image FriendlyELEC's image TF card
FriendlyELEC's image Image with Mainline U-boot eMMC
Image with Mainline U-boot FriendlyELEC's image eMMC
Image with Mainline U-boot Image with Mainline U-boot eMMC

5 Work with FriendlyWrt

5.1 Introduction to FriendlyWrt

FriendlyWrt is a customized system made by FriendlyElec based on an OpenWrt distribution. It is open source and well suitable for developing IoT applications, NAS applications etc.

5.2 First boot

For the first boot, the system needs to do the following initialization work:
1)Extended root file system
2)Initial setup(will execute /root/
So you need to wait for a while (about 2~3 minutes) to boot up for the first time, and then set FriendlyWrt, you can enter the ttyd terminal on the openwrt webpage, when the prompt is displayed as root@FriendlyWrt, it means the system has been initialized.


5.3 Account & Password

The default password is password (empty password in some versions). Please set or change a safer password for web login and ssh login. It is recommended to complete this setting before connecting NanoPi-R2S-Plus to the Internet.

5.4 Login FriendlyWrt

Connect the PC to the LAN port of NanoPi-R2S-Plus. If your PC without a built-in ethernet port, connect the LAN port of the wireless AP to the LAN port of NanoPi-R2S-Plus, and then connect your PC to the wireless AP via WiFi , Enter the following URL on your PC's browser to access the admin page:

The above is the LAN port address of NanoPi-R2S-Plus. The IP address of the WAN port will be dynamically obtained from your main router through DHCP.

5.5 Recommended security settings

The following settings are highly recommended to complete before connecting NanoPi-R2S-Plus to the Internet。

  • Set a secure password
  • Only allow access to ssh from lan, change the port
  • Check the firewall settings

Set up as you wish.

5.6 Change LAN IP in LuCI

1) Click on Network → Interfaces, then click on the Edit button of the LAN Network;
2) In General Setup tab, input new IP address (for example:, click "Save" and then click "Save & Apply";
3) On the pop-up window with the title “Connectivity change“, click "Apply and revert on connectivity loss";
4) Wait a moment, enter the new address in your computer's browser and login to FriendlyWrt;

5.7 Safe shutdown operation

Enter the "Services" -> "Terminal", enter the "poweroff" command and hit enter, wait until the led light is off, and then unplug the power supply.

5.8 Soft Factory Reset

Enter "System"->"Backup/Flash firmware",Click “Perform reset“ Button, Your device's settings will be reset to defaults like when FriendlyWrt was first installed.
You can also do this in the terminal:

firstboot && reboot

5.9 Install Software Packages

5.9.1 Set up openwrt official opkg source

sed -i -e 's/' /etc/opkg/distfeeds.conf
opkg update

5.9.2 Update Package List

Before install software packages update the package list:

$ opkg update

5.9.3 List Available Packages

$ opkg list

5.9.4 List Installed Packages

$ opkg list-installed

5.9.5 Install Packages

$ opkg install <package names>

5.9.6 Remove Packages

$ opkg remove <package names>

5.10 Disable IPv6

. /root/

5.11 Configure the function of the user button

By default, the user button is configured to reboot the device, as shown below:

echo 'BTN_1 1 /sbin/reboot' >> /etc/triggerhappy/triggers.d/example.conf

You can change its behavior by changing the configuration file above.

5.12 Configuring Quectel EC20 (4G module) dial-up networking

  • Go to "Network" -> "Interfaces"
  • Click "Delete" next to "WAN6", then click "Save & Apply"
  • Click "Edit" next to "WAN", in the "Device" drop-down menu, select "Ethernet Adapter: wwan0", in the "Protocol" drop-down menu, select "QMI Cellular" and click "Switch Protocol"
  • Click the "Modem Device" drop-down menu, select "/dev/cdc-wdm0", fill in the APN information (e.g. for China Mobile, enter "cmnet")
  • Click "Save" to close the dialog, Finally, click "Save & Apply" at the bottom of the page to initiate the dial-up process
  • Devices connected to LAN will have access to the Internet, If your device has a WiFi module, you can enable wireless AP functionality on the "Wireless" page and connect to the Internet via devices connected wirelessly

5.13 Some common issues of FriendlyWrt

  • Unable to dial up
    • Go to "Network" -> "Firewall" and set "Inbound Data", "Outbound Data" and "Forwarding" in "WAN Zone" to "Accept";
    • If you still cannot access the Internet, you can try to turn off IPV6;
  • Dial-up successful, but no outgoing traffic
    • Go to "Services" -> "Terminal" and type "fw4 reload" to try to reload the firewall settings again;
  • Unable to power on
    • Try to replace the power adapter and cable. It is recommended to use a power supply with specifications above 5V/2A;
    • Note that some fast chargers with Type-C interface will have a delay, it may take a few seconds to start providing power;
  • When doing secondary routing, the computer cannot connect to the Internet
    • If your main network is IPv4, and NanoPi-R2S-Plus works in IPv6, the computer may not be able to connect to the Internet. It is recommended to turn off IPv6 (the method is described later in this WiKi), or switch the main route to IPv6;
  • If you have questions or have better suggestions, please send an email to;

5.14 Use USB2LCD to view IP and temperature

Plug the USB2LCD module to the USB interface ofNanoPi-R2S-Plus and power on, the IP address and CPU temperature will be displayed on the LCD:

5.15 How to use SDIO WiFi

5.15.1 AP Mode

  • FriendlyWrt's wireless function is disabled by default, to enable WiFi, you can click "Network > Wireless", and then click the "Enable" button.
  • Search for a WiFi hotspot with a name like FriendlyWrt-xx:yy:zz on your phone, enter the default password "password" to connect.
  • SDIO WiFi models supported: rtl8822cs

5.15.2 Wireless Repeater Mode


  • Connect to the wireless router

Click "Network" -> "Wireless", Click the "Scan" button next to "Generic MAC80211 802.11ac/b/g/n" to scan for networks, select the router you want to connect and then click the "Join Network" button,
In the network joining configuration page, turn on "Replace wireless configuration", enter the key in the "WPA passphrase" field, keep other configurations as default, click "Submit",
Click "Advanced Settings", input "wlan0" in "Interface Name" field, and then click "Save",
Finally, click "Save and Apply", if normal, you can see the IP address on the FriendlyWrt homepage.

  • Create wireless hotspot

Click "Network" -> "Wireless", Click the "Add" button next to "Generic MAC80211 802.11ac/b/g/n",the "Edit wireless network" page will pop up,
Set the wireless channel in the "Operating frequency" field (e.g., "40 (5200 MHz)"),
In the "ESSID" field, input the hotspot name,
In the "Network" field, select "lan",
Click on "Wireless Security", set the encryption type,
Click "Advanced Settings", input "wlan1" in "Interface Name" field, then click "Save" and "Save and Apply",
It requires a reboot to take effect, click on "System" menu, then select "Reboot".

5.16 How to use USB WiFi

5.16.1 Check USB WiFi Device with Command Line Utility

(1) Click on "services>ttyd" to start the command line utility
(2) Make sure no USB devices are connected to your board and run the following command to check if any USB devices are connected or not


(3) Connect a USB WiFi device to the board and run the command again


You will see a new device is detected. In our test the device's ID was 0BDA:C811
(4) Type your device's ID (in our case it was "0BDA:C811" or "VID_0BDA&PID_C811") in a search engine and you may find a device that matches the ID. In our case the device we got was Realtek 8811CU.

5.16.2 Configure a USB WiFi Device as AP

(1) Connect a USB WiFi device to the NanoPi-R2S-Plus. We recommend you to use the following devices:
Note: devices that match these VID&PIDs would most likely work.
(2) Click on "System>Reboot" and reboot your NanoPi-R2S-Plus

(3) Click on "Network>Wireless" to enter the WiFi configuration page
(4) Click on "Edit" to edit the configuration
(5) On the "Interface Configuration" page you can set the WiFi mode and SSID, and then go to "Wireless Security" to change the password. By default the password is "password". After you make your changes click on "Save" to save

(6) After you change the settings you can use a smartphone or PC to search for WiFi

5.16.3 Common USB WiFi issues

1) It is recommended to plug in the usb wifi in the off state, then power it on, FriendlyWrt will automatically generate the configuration file /etc/config/wireless, if not, see if there is wlan0 by ifconfig -a, if there is no wlan0, usually there is no driver.
2) If ifconfig -a sees wlan0, but the hotspot is not working properly, try changing the channel and country code, an inappropriate country code can also cause the WiFi to not work.
3) Some USB WiFis (e.g. MTK MT7662) work in CD-ROM mode by default and need to be switched by usb_modeswitch, you can try to add usb_modeswitch configuration to the following directory: /etc/usb_modeswitch.d.

5.16.4 Change the default WiFi hotspot configuration

FriendlyWrt sets the country, hotspot name and other parameters for USB WiFi by default, with the aim of being as plug-and-play as possible, but this does not guarantee that all modules will be compatible with this setting, you can change these behaviors by modifying the following file:


5.17 Work with Docker Applications

5.17.1 Work with Docker: Install JellyFin

mkdir -p /jellyfin/config
mkdir -p /jellyfin/videos
docker run --restart=always -d -p 8096:8096 -v /jellyfin/config:/config -v /jellyfin/videos:/videos jellyfin/jellyfin:10.1.0-arm64 -name myjellyfin

After installation, visit port 8096 and here is what you would find:

5.17.2 Work with Docker: Install Personal Nextcloud

mkdir /nextcloud -p
docker run -d -p 8888:80  --name nextcloud  -v /nextcloud/:/var/www/html/ --restart=always --privileged=true  arm64v8/nextcloud

After installtion, visit port 8888.

5.17.3 Expand Docker Storage

  • Stop docker service first:
/etc/init.d/dockerd stop
  • Rename the original /opt directory, create an empty /opt directory:
mv /opt /opt-old && mkdir /opt
  • Format your drive as ext4, and mount it to the /opt directory:

Friendlywrt mount nvme opt-en.jpg

  • Enter the command "mount | grep /opt" to check the mount status:
root@FriendlyWrt:~# mount | grep /opt
/dev/nvme0n1p1 on /opt type ext4 (rw,relatime)
  • Copy the files from the original /opt directory to the new /opt directory:
cp -af /opt-old/* /opt/ && rm -rf /opt-old
  • Reboot the device
  • After reboot, go to the "Docker" -> "Overview" page, check the information in the "Docker Root Dir" line, you can see that the Docker space has been expanded:

Friendlywrt docker info-en.jpg

5.17.4 Docker FAQ and solutions Unable to access the network services provided by the Docker container


  • Go to the "Firewall" settings and set "Forwarding" to "Accept";
  • Turn off "Software Offload";

5.18 Mount smbfs

mount -t cifs // /movie -o username=xxx,password=yyy,file_mode=0644

5.19 Use sdk to compile the package

5.19.1 Install the compilation environment

Download and run the following script on 64-bit Ubuntu (version 18.04+): How to setup the Compiling Environment on Ubuntu bionic

5.19.2 Download and decompress sdk from the network disk

The sdk is located in the toolchain directory of the network disk:

tar xvf openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64.tar.xz
# If the path is too long, it will cause some package compilation errors, so change the directory name here
mv openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64 sdk
cd sdk
./scripts/feeds update -a
./scripts/feeds install -a

5.19.3 Compile the package

download the source code of the example (a total of 3 examples are example1, example2, example3), and copy to the package directory:

git clone
cp -rf openwrt-examples/example* package/
rm -rf openwrt-examples/

Then enter the configuration menu through the following command:

make menuconfig

In the menu, select the following packages we want to compile (actually selected by default):

"Utilities" => "example1"
"Utilities" => "example3"
"Network" => "VPN" => "example2"

execute the following commands to compile the three software packages:

make package/example1/compile V=99
make package/example2/compile V=99
make package/example3/compile V=99

After the compilation is successful, you can find the ipk file in the bin directory, as shown below:

$ find ./bin -name example*.ipk

5.19.4 Install the ipk to NanoPi

You can use the scp command to upload the ipk file to NanoPi:

cd ./bin/packages/aarch64_generic/base/
scp example*.ipk root@

Then use the opkg command to install them:

cd /root/
opkg install example3_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example1_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example2_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk

5.20 Build FriendlyWrt using GitHub Actions

Please refre this link:

6 Work with FriendlyCore

6.1 FriendlyCore User Account

  • Non-root User:
   User Name: pi
   Password: pi
  • Root:
   User Name: root
   Password: fa

6.2 Update Software Packages

$ sudo apt-get update

6.3 Setup Network Configurations

6.3.1 Set static IP address

By default "eth0" is assigned an IP address obtained via dhcp. If you want to change the setting you need to change the following file:

vi /etc/network/interfaces.d/eth0

For example if you want to assign a static IP to it you can run the following commands:

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static

6.3.2 Set a DNS

You also need to modify the following file to add the DNS configuration:

vi /etc/systemd/resolved.conf

For example, set to


Restart the systemd-resolved service with the following command:

sudo systemctl restart systemd-resolved.service
sudo systemctl enable systemd-resolved.service

6.3.3 Set up to use another network interface

To change the setting of "eth1" you can add a new file similar to eth0's configuration file under the /etc/network/interfaces.d/ directory.

6.4 Setup Wi-Fi

First, use the following command to check if Network-Manager is installed on your system:

which nmcli

If you have installed it, refer to this link to connect to WiFi: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings, If you do not have Network-Manager installed on your system, please refer to the following method to configure WiFi,
By default the WiFi device is "wlan0". You need to create a configuration file under "/etc/network/interfaces.d/" for WiFi:

vi /etc/network/interfaces.d/wlan0

Here is a sample wlan0 file:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
wpa-driver wext
wpa-ssid YourWiFiESSID
wpa-ap-scan 1
wpa-proto RSN
wpa-pairwise CCMP
wpa-group CCMP
wpa-key-mgmt WPA-PSK
wpa-psk YourWiFiPassword

Please replace "YourWiFiESSID" and "YourWiFiPassword" with your WiFiESSID and password. After save and close the file you can connect to your WiFi source by running the following command:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart networking

After you power on your board it will automatically connect to your WiFi source.
Please note that if you use one TF card to boot multiple boards the WiFi device name will likely be named to "wlan1", "wlan2" and etc. You can reset it to "wlan0" by deleting the contents of the following file and reboot your board: /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules

6.4.1 WiFi models supported M.2 WiFi Module
  • RTL8822CE Usb Dongle
  • RTL8821CU (Vid: 0BDA, Pid: C811) (Test sample:TP-Link TL-WDN5200H)
  • RTL8812AU (Vid: 0BDA, Pid: 8812)
  • MediaTek MT7662 (Vid: 0E8D, Pid: 7612) (Test sample:COMFAST CF-WU782AC V2)

6.5 Install the kernel-header package

sudo dpkg -i /opt/linux-headers-*.deb

6.6 Build kernel-header deb package

Please refre to:

6.7 Config status LEDs

First determine whether the system already exists the leds initialization service:

sudo systemctl status leds

If the leds service already exists, change the default behavior of the LEDs by editing the following file:


Since there is no leds service in the early firmware, you need to refer to the following guide to manually configure the LEDs. First, set the following kernel modules to be automatically loaded at boot:

modprobe ledtrig-netdev
echo ledtrig-netdev > /etc/modules-load.d/ledtrig-netdev.conf

Put the following into the autorun script to associate the status leds with the ethernet interface, and you can configure it to behave in other ways by referring to these content:

echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/trigger
echo eth0 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/link
echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/trigger
echo eth1 > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/link

6.8 Delete Qt5 and related files

Execute the following commands:

su root
cd /
rm -rf usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-5.10.0-rk64one usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-5.10.0-rk64one-sdk usr/bin/setqt5env* usr/bin/qt5demo etc/qt5
rm -rf opt/{qt5-browser,Qt5_CinematicExperience,qt5-multi-screen-demo,qt5-nmapper,qt5-player,qt5-smarthome,QtE-Demo,qt5-qml-image-viewer,dual-camera}

7 Work with Debian Core

7.1 Account & Password

Regular Account:
    User Name: pi
    Password: pi

    the root user account is disabled by default, you may configure the root password through the 'sudo passwd root' command.

7.2 View IP address

Since the Debian Bullseye hostname is the hardware model by default, you can use the ping command to get the IP address:ping NanoPi-R2S-Plus
Debian Bullseye uses network-manager to manage the network, and the network ports are configured to automatically obtain IP addresses by DHCP (including devices with multiple network ports).

7.3 Connect to Debian via SSH

Run the following commandssh pi@NanoPi-R2S-Plus
The default password is: pi

7.4 Update Software Packages

$ sudo apt-get update

7.5 Change time zone

7.5.1 Check the current time zone


7.5.2 List all available time zones

timedatectl list-timezones

7.5.3 Set the time zone (e.g. Shanghai)

sudo timedatectl set-timezone Asia/Shanghai

Replace the following two files in the kernel source code directory and recompile the kernel:
Or use the script to operate, as shown below:

  • Download scripts:
git clone -b kernel-4.19 --single-branch
cd sd-fuse_rk3328
  • Compile kernel and repackage firmware
convert files/logo.jpg -type truecolor /tmp/logo.bmp
convert files/logo.jpg -type truecolor /tmp/logo_kernel.bmp
sudo LOGO=/tmp/logo.bmp KERNEL_LOGO=/tmp/logo_kernel.bmp ./ debian-bullseye-core-arm64
sudo ./ debian-bullseye-core-arm64
sudo ./ debian-bullseye-core-arm64

7.7 Soft Factory Reset

Execute the following command in a terminal:

sudo firstboot && sudo reboot

7.8 Install Docker on Debian

Please refer to: How to Install Docker on Debian

8 Buildroot Linux

Buildroot is a simple, efficient and easy-to-use tool to generate embedded Linux systems through cross-compilation. It contains a boot-loader, kernel, rootfs, various libraries and utilities(e.g. qt, gstreamer, busybox etc).

FriendlyELEC's Buildroot is based on Rockchip's version which is made with linux-sdk and maintained with git. FriendlyELEC's version is synced with Rockchip's version;

For a more detailed description of the Buildroot system, please refer to: Buildroot

9 How to Compile

9.1 Setup Development Environment

9.1.1 Method 1: Using docker to cross-compile

Please refre to docker-cross-compiler-novnc

9.1.2 Method 2: Setup build environment on the host machine Install required packages

Install and run requirements ubuntu 20.04, install required packages using the following commands:

sudo apt-get -y update
sudo apt-get install -y sudo curl
sudo bash -c \
  "$(curl -fsSL"

The following cross-compilers will be installed:

Version Architecture Compiler path Purpose
4.9.3 armhf /opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/4.9.3 Can be used to build 32-bit ARM applications
6.4 aarch64 /opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/6.4-aarch64 Can be used to build kernel 4.4
11.3 aarch64 /opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64 Can be used to build kernel 4.19 or higher and U-Boot Setting the compiler path

Based on the table in the previous section, select the appropriate version of the compiler and add the compiler's path to PATH. For example, if you want to use the 11.3 cross-compiler, edit ~/.bashrc using vi and add the following content to the end:

export PATH=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/bin:$PATH
export GCC_COLORS=auto

Run the ~/.bashrc script to make it effective in the current commandline. Note: there is a space after ".":

. ~/.bashrc

To verify if the installation was successful:

$ aarch64-linux-gcc -v
Using built-in specs.
Target: aarch64-cortexa53-linux-gnu
Configured with: /home/cross/arm64/src/gcc/configure --build=x86_64-build_pc-linux-gnu --host=x86_64-build_pc-linux-gnu --target=aarch64-cortexa53-linux-gnu --prefix=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64 --exec_prefix=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64 --with-sysroot=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/aarch64-cortexa53-linux-gnu/sysroot --enable-languages=c,c++ --enable-fix-cortex-a53-843419 --with-arch=armv8-a+crypto+crc --with-cpu=cortex-a53 --with-pkgversion=ctng-1.25.0-119g-FA --with-bugurl= --enable-objc-gc --enable-__cxa_atexit --disable-libmudflap --disable-libgomp --disable-libssp --disable-libquadmath --disable-libquadmath-support --disable-libsanitizer --disable-libmpx --with-gmp=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --with-mpfr=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --with-mpc=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --with-isl=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --enable-lto --enable-threads=posix --disable-libstdcxx-pch --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-libstdcxx-time=yes --with-default-libstdcxx-abi=new --enable-gnu-indirect-function --enable-gnu-unique-object --enable-default-pie --enable-linker-build-id --with-linker-hash-style=gnu --enable-plugin --enable-gold --with-libintl-prefix=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --disable-multilib --with-local-prefix=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/aarch64-cortexa53-linux-gnu/sysroot --enable-long-long --enable-checking=release --enable-link-serialization=2
Thread model: posix
Supported LTO compression algorithms: zlib
gcc version 11.3.0 (ctng-1.25.0-119g-FA)

9.2 Build Openwrt/Friendlywrt

9.2.1 Download Code

Two versions are available, please choose as required: FriendlyWrt 21.02
mkdir friendlywrt21-rk3328
cd friendlywrt21-rk3328
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v21.02 \
        -m rk3328.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle FriendlyWrt 23.05
mkdir friendlywrt23-rk3328
cd friendlywrt23-rk3328
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v23.05 \
        -m rk3328.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle

9.2.2 First compilation step

./  # or

All the components (including u-boot, kernel, and friendlywrt) are compiled and the sd card image will be generated, then execute the following command to generate the image file for installing the system into the emmc:

./ emmc-img

After making changes to the project, the sd card image needs to be repackaged by running the following command:

./ sd-img

9.2.3 Secondary compilation steps

cd friendlywrt
make menuconfig
rm -rf ./tmp
make -j${nproc}
cd ../
./ sd-img
./ emmc-img

9.2.4 Build u-boot only

./ uboot

9.2.5 Build kernel only

./ kernel

9.2.6 Build friendlywrt only

./ friendlywrt

Or go to the friendlywrt directory and follow the standard openwrt commands. If you get an error with the above command, try using the following command to compile in a single thread:

cd friendlywrt
make -j1 V=s

9.3 Build Buildroot

please refer to: Buildroot

9.4 Build Other Linux

9.4.1 Kernel and u-boot versions

Operating System Kernel Version U-boot version Cross-compiler Partition type Packaging Tool Kernel branch Kernel configuration U-boot branch U-boot configuration
buildroot linux v4.19.y u-boot
11.3-aarch64 GPT sd-fuse nanopi4-v4.19.y nanopi4_linux_defconfig nanopi4-v2017.09 nanopi_r2_defconfig
openmediavault-arm64 linux v6.1.y GPT
nanopi-r2-v6.1.y nanopi-r2_linux_defconfig
friendlycore-lite-focal-arm64 GPT
friendlywrt21 nanopi-r2_linux_defconfig

9.4.2 Build kernel linux-v4.19.y

This section applies to the following operating systems:

buildroot friendlycore-focal-arm64

Clone the repository to your local drive then build:

git clone --single-branch --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v4.19.y kernel-rockchip
cd kernel-rockchip
export PATH=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/bin/:$PATH
touch .scmversion
# Configuring the Kernel
# Load default configuration
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- nanopi4_linux_defconfig
# Optionally, load configuration for FriendlyWrt
# make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- nanopi4_linux_defconfig friendlywrt.config
# Optionally, if you want to change the default kernel config
# make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- menuconfig
# Start building kernel
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- nanopi4-images -j$(nproc)
# Start building kernel modules
mkdir -p out-modules
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- INSTALL_MOD_PATH="$PWD/out-modules" modules -j$(nproc)
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- INSTALL_MOD_PATH="$PWD/out-modules" modules_install
KERNEL_VER=$(make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 kernelrelease)
rm -rf $PWD/out-modules/lib/modules/${KERNEL_VER}/kernel/drivers/gpu/arm/mali400/
[ ! -f "$PWD/out-modules/lib/modules/${KERNEL_VER}/modules.dep" ] && depmod -b $PWD/out-modules -E Module.symvers -F -w ${KERNEL_VER}
(cd $PWD/out-modules && find . -name \*.ko | xargs aarch64-linux-strip --strip-unneeded)

After the compilation, the following files will be generated:

kernel.img resource.img The kernel modules are located in the out-modules directory

Run your build:
Please refre to #Running the build

9.4.3 Build kernel linux-v6.1.y

This section applies to the following operating systems:

friendlywrt21 friendlywrt21-docker friendlywrt23 friendlywrt23-docker friendlycore-lite-focal-arm64 openmediavault-arm64 debian-bullseye-core-arm64

Clone the repository to your local drive then build:

git clone --single-branch --depth 1 -b nanopi-r2-v6.1.y kernel-rockchip
cd kernel-rockchip
export PATH=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/bin/:$PATH
touch .scmversion
# Configuring the Kernel
# Load default configuration
make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 nanopi-r2_linux_defconfig
# Optionally, load configuration for FriendlyWrt
# make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 nanopi-r2_linux_defconfig friendlywrt.config
# Optionally, if you want to change the default kernel config
# make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 menuconfig
# Start building kernel
make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 -j$(nproc)
# Start building kernel modules
mkdir -p out-modules && rm -rf out-modules/*
make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 INSTALL_MOD_PATH="$PWD/out-modules" modules -j$(nproc)
make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 INSTALL_MOD_PATH="$PWD/out-modules" modules_install
KERNEL_VER=$(make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 kernelrelease)
[ ! -f "$PWD/out-modules/lib/modules/${KERNEL_VER}/modules.dep" ] && depmod -b $PWD/out-modules -E Module.symvers -F -w ${KERNEL_VER}
(cd $PWD/out-modules && find . -name \*.ko | xargs aarch64-linux-strip --strip-unneeded)

Pack the kernel.img and resource.img:

wget && chmod 755 mkkrnlimg
wget && chmod 755 resource_tool
./mkkrnlimg arch/arm64/boot/Image kernel.img
./resource_tool --dtbname arch/arm64/boot/dts/rockchip/rk3328-nanopi*-rev*.dtb logo.bmp logo_kernel.bmp

After the compilation, the following files will be generated:

kernel.img resource.img The kernel modules are located in the out-modules directory

Run your build:
Please refre to #Running the build

9.4.4 Build u-boot v2017.09

This section applies to the following operating systems:

buildroot friendlycore-focal-arm64 friendlywrt21 friendlywrt21-docker friendlywrt23 friendlywrt23-docker friendlycore-lite-focal-arm64 openmediavault-arm64 debian-bullseye-core-arm64

Clone the repository to your local drive then build:

git clone --single-branch --depth 1 -b friendlyelec
git clone --single-branch --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v2017.09
export PATH=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/bin/:$PATH
cd uboot-rockchip/
./ nanopi_r2

After the compilation, the following files will be generated:

uboot.img trust.img rk3328_loader_v1.16.250.bin (aka MiniLoaderAll.bin)

Run your build:
Please refre to #Running the build

9.4.5 Running the build Install to target board

This section applies to the following operating systems:

buildroot friendlycore-focal-arm64 friendlywrt21 friendlywrt21-docker friendlywrt23 friendlywrt23-docker friendlycore-lite-focal-arm64 openmediavault-arm64 debian-bullseye-core-arm64

RK3328 uses GPT partitions by default, you can use the dd command, but be careful to choose the right output device:

  • The SD/TF Card device node: /dev/mmcblk0
  • The eMMC device node: /dev/mmcblk2

The following is an example of how to update the kernel to eMMC:
Use the 'parted' command to view the partition layout:

parted /dev/mmcblk2 print

Sample outputs:

Model: MMC BJTD4R (sd/mmc)
Disk /dev/mmcblk2: 31.3GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:
Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name      Flags
 1      8389kB  12.6MB  4194kB               uboot
 2      12.6MB  16.8MB  4194kB               trust
 3      16.8MB  21.0MB  4194kB               misc
 4      21.0MB  25.2MB  4194kB               dtbo
 5      25.2MB  41.9MB  16.8MB               resource
 6      41.9MB  83.9MB  41.9MB               kernel
 7      83.9MB  134MB   50.3MB               boot
 8      134MB   2500MB  2366MB  ext4         rootfs
 9      2500MB  31.3GB  28.8GB  ext4         userdata

as shown above, the resource partition is located at 5 and the kernel partition is located at 6. Use the dd command to write the resource.img and kernel.img files to these partitions, the commands are as follows:

dd if=resource.img of=/dev/mmcblk2p5 bs=1M
dd if=kernel.img of=/dev/mmcblk2p6 bs=1M

If you want to update u-boot:

dd if=uboot.img of=/dev/mmcblk2p1 bs=1M

To update new driver modules, copy the newly compiled driver modules to the appropriate directory under /lib/modules. Packaging and creating an SD image

To create a new OS image file, you need to use the "sd-fuse" packaging tool.

"sd-fuse" is a collection of scripts that can be used to create bootable SD card images for FriendlyElec boards. Its main features include:

  • Creation of root filesystem images from a directory
  • Building of bootable SD card images
  • Simple compilation of kernel, U-Boot, and third-party drivers

Please click on the following link to find out more:

Kernel version Packaging Tool
linux v4.19.y sd-fuse_rk3328/kernel-4.19
linux v6.1.y sd-fuse_rk3328/kernel-6.1.y USB flashing Linux

Reboot the board and enter loader mode with the following command:

sudo reboot loader

To flash U-Boot and kernel using the "upgrade_tool_v2.17_for_linux" tool, please use the following command:

sudo upgrade_tool di -k kernel.img
sudo upgrade_tool di -re resource.img
sudo upgrade_tool di -u uboot.img
sudo upgrade_tool RD

Note: "upgrade_tool" is a command-line tool provided by Rockchip for Linux operating systems (Linux_Upgrade_Tool).

9.5 Build the code using scripts

9.5.1 Download scripts and image files

git clone -b kernel-4.19
cd sd-fuse_rk3328
tar xvzf friendlycore-focal-arm64-images.tgz

9.5.2 Compile the kernel

Download the kernel source code and compile it. the relevant image files in the friendlycore-focal-arm64 directory will be automatically updated, including the kernel modules in the file system:

git clone --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v4.19.y kernel-rk3328
KERNEL_SRC=$PWD/kernel-rk3328 ./ friendlycore-focal-arm64

9.5.3 Compile the kernel headers

git clone --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v4.19.y kernel-rk3328
MK_HEADERS_DEB=1 BUILD_THIRD_PARTY_DRIVER=0 KERNEL_SRC=$PWD/kernel-rk3328 ./ friendlycore-focal-arm64

9.5.4 Compile the uboot

Download the uboot source code and compile it. the relevant image files in the friendlycore-focal-arm64 directory will be automatically updated:

git clone --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v2017.09
UBOOT_SRC=$PWD/uboot-rockchip ./ friendlycore-focal-arm64

9.5.5 Generate new image

Repackage the image file in the friendlycore-focal-arm64 directory into sd card image:

./ friendlycore-focal-arm64

After the command is completed, the image is in the out directory, you can use the dd command to make the SD boot card, for example:

dd if=out/rk3328-sd-friendlycore-focal-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img of=/dev/sdX bs=1M

10 Backup rootfs and create custom SD image (to burn your application into other boards)

10.1 Backup rootfs

Run the following commands on your target board. These commands will back up the entire root partition:

sudo passwd root
su root
cd /
tar --warning=no-file-changed -cvpzf /rootfs.tar.gz \
    --exclude=/rootfs.tar.gz --exclude=/var/lib/docker/runtimes \
    --exclude=/etc/firstuser --exclude=/etc/friendlyelec-release \
    --exclude=/usr/local/first_boot_flag --one-file-system /

Note: if there is a mounted directory on the system, an error message will appear at the end, which can be ignored.

10.2 Making a bootable SD card from a root filesystem

Run the following script on your Linux PC host, we'll only mention "friendlycore-lite-focal-arm64 os" for brevity, but you can apply the same process for every linux OS.

su root
git clone --single-branch -b kernel-6.1.y
cd sd-fuse_rk3328
tar xvzf /path/to/netdrive/03_Partition\ image\ files/friendlycore-lite-focal-arm64-images.tgz
tar xvzf /path/to/netdrive/03_Partition\ image\ files/emmc-eflasher-images.tgz
scp pi@BOARDIP:/rootfs.tar.gz /rootfs.tar.gz
mkdir rootfs
tar xzf rootfs.tar.gz -C rootfs
./ rootfs friendlycore-lite-focal-arm64
./ friendlycore-lite-focal-arm64
./ friendlycore-lite-focal-arm64 autostart=yes

11 Configuring kernel command line parameters

11.1 eMMC Boot

Here are the steps:
Make an eflahser bootable SD card (use the firmware file starting with rk3xxxx-eflasher-),
Insert the SD card into your computer, go to the SD card's OS-related directory, and edit the file parameter.txt, which is a text file containing command-line parameters,
Then boot from the SD card and burn the system to the eMMC.

11.2 SD Boot

To modify the command line parameters of the SD card, you need to repackage the SD card image file,
you can use the sd-fuse script we provide to assist packaging:

git clone -b kernel-6.1.y --single-branch
cd sd-fuse_rk3328
tar xvzf /path/to/netdrive/03_Partition\ image\ files/friendlywrt23-images.tgz
tar xvzf /path/to/netdrive/03_Partition\ image\ files/emmc-flasher-images.tgz
vim friendlywrt23/parameter.txt   # Edit command-line parameters
./ friendlywrt23    # Repackage sd image file
./ friendlywrt23  # Repackage sd-to-emmc image file

12 More OS Support

12.1 DietPi

DietPi is a highly optimised & minimal Debian-based Linux distribution. DietPi is extremely lightweight at its core, and also extremely easy to install and use.
Setting up a single board computer (SBC) or even a computer, for both regular or server use, takes time and skill. DietPi provides an easy way to install and run favourite software you choose.
For more information, please visit this link

DietPi supports many of the NanoPi board series, you may download the image file from here:

13 Resources

13.1 Datasheets and Schematics

14 Update Logs

Initial Release