NanoPi R2C

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1 Introduction

  • The NanoPi R2C(as "R2C") is an open source development board with dual-Gbps Ethernet ports designed and developed by FriendlyElec for IoT applications.
  • The NanoPi R2C uses the RK3328 SoC. It has two Gbps Ethernet ports and 1G DDR4 RAM. FriendlyElec ported an OpenWrt system for it. It works with Docker CE. It is a good platform for developing IoT applications, NAS applications etc.

2 Hardware Spec

  • CPU: Rockchip RK3328, Quad-core Cortex-A53
  • DDR4 RAM: 1GB
  • Network:
    • Internal 10/100/1000M Ethernet Port x 1
    • USB3.0 converted 10/100/1000M Ethernet Port x 1
  • USB2.0 Host: Type-A x1
  • MicroSD Slot x 1
  • MicroUSB: power input and USB Slave
  • Debug Serial Port: 3.3V TTL, 3-pin 2.54mm pitch connector, 1500000 bauds
  • LED: LED x 3
  • KEY: KEY x 1 programmable
  • PC Size: 55.6 x 52mm
  • Power Supply: DC 5V/2A
  • Temperature measuring range: 0℃ to 80℃
  • OS/Software: U-boot,Ubuntu-Core,OpenWrt

  • Network Transmission Rates
WAN 941 Mbps 941 Mbps
LAN 941 Mbps 941 Mbps
Notes: 1. test utility: iperf
2. use indepedent IP address section and test with a PC in simplex communication mode

3 Diagram, Layout and Dimension

3.1 Layout

NanoPi R2C Layout

  • GPIO Spec
Pin# Name Linux gpio Pin# Name Linux gpio
1 SYS_3.3V 2 VDD_5V
3 I2C0_SDA / GPIO2_D1 89 4 VDD_5V
5 I2C0_SCL / GPIO2_D0 88 6 GND
7 GPIO2_A2 / IR_RX 66 8 UART1_TX / GPIO3_A4 100
9 GND 10 UART1_RX / GPIOG3_A6 102
For more details refer to:NanoPi_R2C_2107_SCH.pdf

4 Get Started

4.1 Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi R2C get the following items ready

  • NanoPi R2C
  • MicroSD Card/TF Card: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • MicroUSB 5V/2A power adapter
  • If you need to develop and compile,you need a computer that can connect to the Internet. It is recommended to install Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit system and use the following script to initialize the development environment:

4.2 TF Cards We Tested

Refer to: TFCardsWeTested

4.3 Configure parameters for serial port

Use the following serial parameters:

Baud rate 1500000
Data bit 8
Parity check None
Stop bit 1
Flow control None

4.4 Install OS

4.4.1 Flash to TF

Visit download linkto download image files (in the "01_Official images/01_SD card images" directory) and utilities (in the "05_Tools" directory):

Image Files
rk3328-sd-friendlywrt-22.03-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt image file, based on OpenWrt 21.02, kernel version 5.15.y
rk3328-sd-friendlywrt-22.03-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt image file, built-in docker, based on OpenWrt 21.02, kernel version 5.15.y 64-bit FriendlyCore Lite image file based on Ubuntu core 20.04 64bit, kernel version 5.15.y
Flash Utility:
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility. Under Linux users can use "dd"

The detailed steps are as follows:

  • Get an 8G SDHC card and backup its data if necessary;
  • Download and extract the xxx.img.gz and win32diskimager;
  • Run the win32diskimager utility under Windows as administrator. On the utility's main window select your SD card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the SD card. Under Linux run "dd" to flash the rkXXXX-sd-OSNAME-YYYYMMDD.img file to your SD card;
  • Take out the SD and insert it to NanoPi-R2C's microSD card slot;
  • Power on NanoPi-R2C and it will be booted from your TF card;

5 Work with FriendlyWrt

5.1 Introduction to FriendlyWrt

FriendlyWrt is a customized system made by FriendlyElec based on an OpenWrt distribution. It is open source and well suitable for developing IoT applications, NAS applications etc.

5.2 First boot

For the first boot, the system needs to do the following initialization work:
1)Extended root file system
2)Initial setup(will execute /root/
So you need to wait for a while (about 2~3 minutes) to boot up for the first time, and then set FriendlyWrt, you can enter the ttyd terminal on the openwrt webpage, when the prompt is displayed as root@FriendlyWrt, it means the system has been initialized.


5.3 Account & Password

The default password is password (empty password in some versions). Please set or change a safer password for web login and ssh login. It is recommended to complete this setting before connecting NanoPi-R2C to the Internet.

5.4 Login FriendlyWrt

Connect the PC to the LAN port of NanoPi-R2C. If your PC without a built-in ethernet port, connect the LAN port of the wireless AP to the LAN port of NanoPi-R2C, and then connect your PC to the wireless AP via WiFi , Enter the following URL on your PC's browser to access the admin page:

The above is the LAN port address of NanoPi-R2C. The IP address of the WAN port will be dynamically obtained from your main router through DHCP.

5.5 Recommended security settings

The following settings are highly recommended to complete before connecting NanoPi-R2C to the Internet。

  • Set a secure password
  • Only allow access to ssh from lan, change the port
  • Only allow local devices to access luci

Edit /etc/config/uhttpd,Change the original and [::] addresses to the local lan address, for example:

	# HTTP listen addresses, multiple allowed
	list listen_http
	list listen_http	[fd00:ab:cd::1]:80
	# HTTPS listen addresses, multiple allowed
	list listen_https
	list listen_https	[fd00:ab:cd::1]:443

Restart the service:

/etc/init.d/uhttpd restart
  • Check the firewall settings

Set up as you wish.

5.6 Safe shutdown operation

Enter the "Services" -> "Terminal", enter the "poweroff" command and hit enter, wait until the led light is off, and then unplug the power supply.

5.7 Soft Factory Reset

Enter "System"->"Backup/Flash firmware",Click “Perform reset“ Button, Your device's settings will be reset to defaults like when FriendlyWrt was first installed.
You can also do this in the terminal:

firstboot && reboot

5.8 Install Software Packages

5.8.1 Update Package List

Before install software packages update the package list:

$ opkg update

5.8.2 List Available Packages

$ opkg list

5.8.3 List Installed Packages

$ opkg list-installed

5.8.4 Install Packages

$ opkg install <package names>

5.8.5 Remove Packages

$ opkg remove <package names>

5.9 Disable IPv6

. /root/

5.10 Configure the function of the user button

By default, the user button is configured to reboot the device, as shown below:

echo 'BTN_1 1 /sbin/reboot' >> /etc/triggerhappy/triggers.d/example.conf

You can change its behavior by changing the configuration file above.

5.11 Some common issues of FriendlyWrt

  • Unable to dial up
    • Go to "Network" -> "Firewall" and set "Inbound Data", "Outbound Data" and "Forwarding" in "WAN Zone" to "Accept";
    • If you still cannot access the Internet, you can try to turn off IPV6;
  • Dial-up successful, but no outgoing traffic
    • Go to "Services" -> "Terminal" and type "fw4 reload" to try to reload the firewall settings again;
  • Unable to power on
    • Try to replace the power adapter and cable. It is recommended to use a power supply with specifications above 5V/2A;
    • Note that some fast chargers with Type-C interface will have a delay, it may take a few seconds to start providing power;
  • When doing secondary routing, the computer cannot connect to the Internet
    • If your main network is IPv4, and NanoPi-R2C works in IPv6, the computer may not be able to connect to the Internet. It is recommended to turn off IPv6 (the method is described later in this WiKi), or switch the main route to IPv6;
  • If you have questions or have better suggestions, please send an email to;

5.12 Use USB2LCD to view IP and temperature

Plug the USB2LCD module to the USB interface ofNanoPi-R2C and power on, the IP address and CPU temperature will be displayed on the LCD:

5.13 Work with USB WiFi Device

5.13.1 Check USB WiFi Device with Command Line Utility

(1) Click on "services>ttyd" to start the command line utility
(2) Make sure no USB devices are connected to your board and run the following command to check if any USB devices are connected or not


(3) Connect a USB WiFi device to the board and run the command again


You will see a new device is detected. In our test the device's ID was 0BDA:C811
(4) Type your device's ID (in our case it was "0BDA:C811" or "VID_0BDA&PID_C811") in a search engine and you may find a device that matches the ID. In our case the device we got was Realtek 8811CU.

5.13.2 Configure a USB WiFi Device as AP

(1) Connect a USB WiFi device to the NanoPi-R2C. We recommend you to use the following devices:
Note: devices that match these VID&PIDs would most likely work.
(2) Click on "System>Reboot" and reboot your NanoPi-R2C

(3) Click on "Network>Wireless" to enter the WiFi configuration page
(4) Click on "Edit" to edit the configuration
(5) On the "Interface Configuration" page you can set the WiFi mode and SSID, and then go to "Wireless Security" to change the password. By default the password is "password". After you make your changes click on "Save" to save

(6) After you change the settings you can use a smartphone or PC to search for WiFi

5.13.3 Common USB WiFi issues

1) It is recommended to plug in the usb wifi in the off state, then power it on, FriendlyWrt will automatically generate the configuration file /etc/config/wireless, if not, see if there is wlan0 by ifconfig -a, if there is no wlan0, usually there is no driver.
2) If ifconfig -a sees wlan0, but the hotspot is not working properly, try changing the channel and country code, an inappropriate country code can also cause the WiFi to not work.
3) Some USB WiFis (e.g. MTK MT7662) work in CD-ROM mode by default and need to be switched by usb_modeswitch, you can try to add usb_modeswitch configuration to the following directory: /etc/usb_modeswitch.d.

5.13.4 Change the default WiFi hotspot configuration

FriendlyWrt sets the country, hotspot name and other parameters for USB WiFi by default, with the aim of being as plug-and-play as possible, but this does not guarantee that all modules will be compatible with this setting, you can change these behaviors by modifying the following file:


5.14 Work with Docker Applications

5.14.1 Work with Docker: Install JellyFin

mkdir -p /jellyfin/config
mkdir -p /jellyfin/videos
docker run --restart=always -d -p 8096:8096 -v /jellyfin/config:/config -v /jellyfin/videos:/videos jellyfin/jellyfin:10.1.0-arm64 -name myjellyfin

After installation, visit port 8096 and here is what you would find:

5.14.2 Work with Docker: Install Personal Nextcloud

mkdir /nextcloud -p
docker run -d -p 8888:80  --name nextcloud  -v /nextcloud/:/var/www/html/ --restart=always --privileged=true  arm64v8/nextcloud

After installtion, visit port 8888.

5.14.3 Expand Docker Storage

  • Stop docker service first:
/etc/init.d/dockerd stop
  • Rename the original /opt directory, create an empty /opt directory:
mv /opt /opt-old && mkdir /opt
  • Format your drive as ext4, and mount it to the /opt directory:

Friendlywrt mount nvme opt-en.jpg

  • Enter the command "mount | grep /opt" to check the mount status:
root@FriendlyWrt:~# mount | grep /opt
/dev/nvme0n1p1 on /opt type ext4 (rw,relatime)
  • Copy the files from the original /opt directory to the new /opt directory:
cp -af /opt-old/* /opt/ && rm -rf /opt-old
  • Reboot the device
  • After reboot, go to the "Docker" -> "Overview" page, check the information in the "Docker Root Dir" line, you can see that the Docker space has been expanded:

Friendlywrt docker info-en.jpg

5.14.4 Docker FAQ and solutions Unable to access the network services provided by the Docker container


  • Go to the "Firewall" settings and set "Forwarding" to "Accept";
  • Turn off "Software Offload";

5.15 Mount smbfs

mount -t cifs // /movie -o username=xxx,password=yyy,file_mode=0644

5.16 Use sdk to compile the package

5.16.1 Install the compilation environment

Download and run the following script on 64-bit Ubuntu (version 18.04+): How to setup the Compiling Environment on Ubuntu bionic

5.16.2 Download and decompress sdk from the network disk

The sdk is located in the toolchain directory of the network disk:

tar xvf openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64.tar.xz
# If the path is too long, it will cause some package compilation errors, so change the directory name here
mv openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64 sdk
cd sdk
./scripts/feeds update -a
./scripts/feeds install -a

5.16.3 Compile the package

download the source code of the example (a total of 3 examples are example1, example2, example3), and copy to the package directory:

git clone
cp -rf openwrt-examples/example* package/
rm -rf openwrt-examples/

Then enter the configuration menu through the following command:

make menuconfig

In the menu, select the following packages we want to compile (actually selected by default):

"Utilities" => "example1"
"Utilities" => "example3"
"Network" => "VPN" => "example2"

execute the following commands to compile the three software packages:

make package/example1/compile V=99
make package/example2/compile V=99
make package/example3/compile V=99

After the compilation is successful, you can find the ipk file in the bin directory, as shown below:

$ find ./bin -name example*.ipk

5.16.4 Install the ipk to NanoPi

You can use the scp command to upload the ipk file to NanoPi:

cd ./bin/packages/aarch64_generic/base/
scp example*.ipk root@

Then use the opkg command to install them:

cd /root/
opkg install example3_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example1_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example2_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk

6 Work with FriendlyCore

6.1 FriendlyCore User Account

  • Non-root User:
   User Name: pi
   Password: pi
  • Root:
   User Name: root
   Password: fa

6.2 Update Software Packages

$ sudo apt-get update

6.3 Setup Network Configurations

6.3.1 Set static IP address

By default "eth0" is assigned an IP address obtained via dhcp. If you want to change the setting you need to change the following file:

vi /etc/network/interfaces.d/eth0

For example if you want to assign a static IP to it you can run the following commands:

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static

6.3.2 Set a DNS

You also need to modify the following file to add the DNS configuration:

vi /etc/systemd/resolved.conf

For example, set to


Restart the systemd-resolved service with the following command:

sudo systemctl restart systemd-resolved.service
sudo systemctl enable systemd-resolved.service

6.3.3 Set up to use another network interface

To change the setting of "eth1" you can add a new file similar to eth0's configuration file under the /etc/network/interfaces.d/ directory.

6.4 Install the kernel-header package

sudo dpkg -i /opt/linux-headers-*.deb

6.5 Build kernel-header deb package

Please refre to:

6.6 Config status LEDs

Set the following kernel modules to be loaded automatically on boot:

echo ledtrig-netdev > /etc/modprobe.d/ledtrig.conf

Put the following into the autorun script to associate the status leds with the ethernet interface, and you can configure it to behave in other ways by referring to these content:

echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/trigger
echo eth0 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/link
echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/trigger
echo eth1 > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/link

7 Buildroot Linux

Buildroot is a simple, efficient and easy-to-use tool to generate embedded Linux systems through cross-compilation. It contains a boot-loader, kernel, rootfs, various libraries and utilities(e.g. qt, gstreamer, busybox etc).

FriendlyELEC's Buildroot is based on Rockchip's version which is made with linux-sdk and maintained with git. FriendlyELEC's version is synced with Rockchip's version;

For a more detailed description of the Buildroot system, please refer to: Buildroot

8 How to Compile

8.1 Build Openwrt/Friendlywrt

8.1.1 Download Code

Two versions are available, please choose as required: FriendlyWrt 21.02.3
mkdir friendlywrt21-rk3328
cd friendlywrt21-rk3328
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v21.02 \
        -m rk3328.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle FriendlyWrt 22.03.0-rc3
mkdir friendlywrt22-rk3328
cd friendlywrt22-rk3328
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v22.03 \
        -m rk3328.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle

8.1.2 First compilation step

./  # or

All the components (including u-boot, kernel, and friendlywrt) are compiled and the sd card image will be generated, then execute the following command to generate the image file for installing the system into the emmc:

./ emmc-img

After making changes to the project, the sd card image needs to be repackaged by running the following command:

./ sd-img

8.1.3 Secondary compilation steps

cd friendlywrt
make menuconfig
rm -rf ./tmp
make -j${nproc}
cd ../
./ sd-img
./ emmc-img

8.2 Build u-boot only

./ uboot

8.3 Build kernel only

./ kernel

8.4 Build friendlywrt only

./ friendlywrt

Or go to the friendlywrt directory and follow the standard openwrt commands. If you get an error with the above command, try using the following command to compile in a single thread:

cd friendlywrt
make -j1 V=s

8.5 Configuring kernel command line parameters

8.5.1 eMMC Boot

Here are the steps:
Make an eflahser bootable SD card (use the firmware file starting with rk3xxxx-eflasher-),
Insert the SD card into your computer, go to the SD card's OS-related directory, and edit the file parameter.txt, which is a text file containing command-line parameters,
Then boot from the SD card and burn the system to the eMMC.

8.5.2 SD Boot

To modify the command line parameters of the SD card, you need to repackage the SD card image file,
you can use the sd-fuse script we provide to assist packaging, here take rk3568 as an example,
other CPUs also have the corresponding sd-fuse repository, replace the word rk3568 with other cpu models:

git clone
cd sd-fuse_rk3568
wget --no-proxy
tar xvzf debian-buster-desktop-arm64-images.tgz
vim debian-buster-desktop-arm64/parameter.txt # Edit command-line parameters
./ debian-buster-desktop-arm64  # Repackage sd image file

9 Make Your Own OS Image

10 More OS Support

10.1 DietPi

DietPi is a highly optimised & minimal Debian-based Linux distribution. DietPi is extremely lightweight at its core, and also extremely easy to install and use.
Setting up a single board computer (SBC) or even a computer, for both regular or server use, takes time and skill. DietPi provides an easy way to install and run favourite software you choose.
For more information, please visit this link

DietPi supports many of the NanoPi board series, you may download the image file from here:

11 Resources

11.1 Datasheets and Schematics

12 Update Logs

12.1 2022-09-06

12.1.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Added Fullcone NAT support
  • upgrade to 22.03.0

12.2 2022-08-03

12.2.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgrade FriendlyWrt to the latest version 22.03-rc6

12.3 2022-08-01

12.3.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Firewall settings adjustment: single-port devices (e.g. NEO3) are set to allow WAN inbound traffic by default for easy web configuration, while multi-port devices are still denied WAN inbound traffic by default

12.4 2022-07-27

12.4.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Both docker and non-docker versions are available, all features are the same except for docker.
  • Beta version 22.03-rc3 is available, you can choose according to your package requirements, stable version 21.02.3 is recommended.
  • Improved compatibility issues with third-party packages
  • Added support for "Soft Factory Reset" function
  • Added web-based tool eMMC-Tools, support install FriendlyElec and some third party firmware to eMMC, besides raw-image also support rockchip package format firmware
  • Other details: default timezone setting to Shanghai, new NAS category menu, remove lcd2usb, improve security settings, tune sysctl parameters, fix docker firewall settings, etc.

12.5 2021-12-02

  • Improved the compatibility of the FriendlyWrt software package installation
  • Fixed the issue that some sd cards would cause the reboot command to not respond (updated the 5.10 kernel)
  • Configure the USB header on NanoPi-NEO3 to host mode by default

12.6 2021-10-29

12.6.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • FriendlyWrt has been updated to the official stable version 21.02.1, features are basically the same as 19.07.5, support docker, usb wifi, etc.

12.7 2021-08-30

12.7.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgraded kernel to 5.10.60
  • Add a high-speed 5G USB WiFi support, the network card model is Comfast CF-WU782AC V2, the chip model is MediaTek MT7662
  • Improved USB WiFi compatibility
  • Improved stability on first boot (previous version, bpfilter error occurred in some cases on first boot)

12.7.2 FriendlyCore:

  • upgraded kernel to 5.10.60

12.8 2021-03-05

  • Upgrade FriendlyCore to 20.04 (base on ubuntu focal)

12.9 2021-01-15

  • upgraded kernel to 5.10
  • upgraded friendlywrt to 19.07.5

12.10 2020-09-04

  • Improved the stability of the usb3.0 driver (integrated with official Rockchip updates) and the stability of the r8153 ethernet card
  • Update the driver of the 8153 ethernet card, using mainline kernel's version, the version is v1.11.11
  • Enable serial port UART1 for R2S and NEO3

12.11 2020-08-31

  • Kernel updated to 5.4.61
  • Use the driver r8152-2.13.0 downloaded from Realtek official website (
  • Improve the USB network card driver, WLAN<->LAN bridge speed can reach 700/500 Mbits/sec
  • Add rockhip rng (hardware random number) driver

12.12 2020-07-10

12.12.1 FriendlyWrt

  • upgraded kernel to 5.4.50
  • added support for NanoPi-NEO3

12.13 2020-05-14

12.13.1 FriendlyWrt

  • upgraded kernel to 5.4.40,fixed bpfilter issue
  • added new usb wifi(rtl8812au)
  • fixed overlayfs issue

12.14 2020-02-25

12.14.1 FriendlyWrt update to v19.07.1,please use branch master-v19.07.1:
mkdir friendlywrt-rk3328
cd friendlywrt-rk3328
repo init -u -b master-v19.07.1 -m rk3328.xml --repo-url= --no-clone-bundle
repo sync -c --no-clone-bundle fixed some issues:
  • fixed bpfilter module issue
  • updated feeds to the latest commit
  • removed modemmanager and mwan3 plugins
  • adjusted cpu scaling governor, optimized startup speed

12.15 2020-02-20

12.15.1 FriendlyWrt

  • Optimized openssl performance
  • Added support for PWM fan, support fan speed control (platform: rk33xx)

12.16 2020-01-18

Initial Release