NanoPi R2C

From FriendlyELEC WiKi
Jump to: navigation, search



1 Introduction

  • The NanoPi R2C(as "R2C") is an open source development board with dual-Gbps Ethernet ports designed and developed by FriendlyElec for IoT applications.
  • The NanoPi R2C uses the RK3328 SoC. It has two Gbps Ethernet ports and 1G DDR4 RAM. FriendlyElec ported an OpenWrt system for it. It works with Docker CE. It is a good platform for developing IoT applications, NAS applications etc.

2 Hardware Spec

  • CPU: Rockchip RK3328, Quad-core Cortex-A53
  • DDR4 RAM: 1GB
  • Network:
    • Internal 10/100/1000M Ethernet Port x 1
    • USB3.0 converted 10/100/1000M Ethernet Port x 1
  • USB2.0 Host: Type-A x1
  • MicroSD Slot x 1
  • MicroUSB: power input and USB Slave
  • Debug Serial Port: 3.3V TTL, 3-pin 2.54mm pitch connector, 1500000 bauds
  • LED: LED x 3
  • KEY: KEY x 1 programmable
  • PC Size: 55.6 x 52mm
  • Power Supply: DC 5V/2A
  • Temperature measuring range: 0℃ to 80℃
  • OS/Software: U-boot,Ubuntu-Core,OpenWrt

  • Network Transmission Rates
WAN 941 Mbps 941 Mbps
LAN 941 Mbps 941 Mbps
Notes: 1. test utility: iperf
2. use indepedent IP address section and test with a PC in simplex communication mode

3 Diagram, Layout and Dimension

3.1 Layout

NanoPi R2C Layout

  • GPIO Spec
Pin# Name Linux gpio Pin# Name Linux gpio
1 SYS_3.3V 2 VDD_5V
3 I2C0_SDA / GPIO2_D1 89 4 VDD_5V
5 I2C0_SCL / GPIO2_D0 88 6 GND
7 GPIO2_A2 / IR_RX 66 8 UART1_TX / GPIO3_A4 100
9 GND 10 UART1_RX / GPIOG3_A6 102
For more details refer to:NanoPi_R2C_2107_SCH.pdf

4 Get Started

4.1 Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi R2C get the following items ready

  • NanoPi R2C
  • MicroSD Card/TF Card: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • MicroUSB 5V/2A power adapter
  • If you need to develop and compile,you need a computer that can connect to the Internet. It is recommended to install Ubuntu 20.04 64-bit system and use the following script to initialize the development environment, or use docker container:

4.2 TF Cards We Tested

Refer to: TFCardsWeTested

4.3 Configure parameters for serial port

Use the following serial parameters:

Baud rate 1500000
Data bit 8
Parity check None
Stop bit 1
Flow control None

4.4 Install OS

4.4.1 Downloads Official image

Visit download link to download official image files (in the "01_Official images" directory).
The table below lists all official images, the word 'XYZ' in image filename meaning:

  • sd: Use it when you need to boot the entire OS from the SD card
  • eflasher: Use it when you need to flash the OS to eMMC via TF card
  • usb: Use it when you need to flash the OS to eMMC via USB
Icon Image Filename Version Description Kernel Version
Debian-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-debian-bookworm-core-6.1-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz bookworm Debian 12 Core, No desktop environment, command line only 6.1.y
Ubuntu-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlycore-focal-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz focal 64-bit FriendlyCore image file(Qt 5.10.0) based on Ubuntu core 20.04 64bit 4.19.y
Ubuntu-icon.svg noble 64-bit FriendlyCore Lite image file based on Ubuntu core 20.04 64bit 6.1.y
Openmediavault250.png rk3328-XYZ-openmediavault-6.1-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Shaitan OpenMediaVault NAS system, base on Debian 12 6.1.y
Linux-tux.svg rk3328-XYZ-buildroot-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz -- Buildroot image file with Qt5-wayland (base on Rockchip Linux SDK) 4.19.y
Openwrt-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz 21.02 FriendlyWrt, based on OpenWrt 21.02 6.1.y
Openwrt-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz 21.02 FriendlyWrt with Docker, based on OpenWrt 21.02 6.1.y
Openwrt-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlywrt-23.05-YYYYMMDD.img.gz 23.05 FriendlyWrt, based on OpenWrt 23.05 6.1.y
Openwrt-icon.svg rk3328-XYZ-friendlywrt-23.05-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz 23.05 FriendlyWrt with Docker, based on OpenWrt 23.05 6.1.y
Other Image
Openwrt-icon.svg Github Actions - FriendlyWrt 21.02,23.05 FriendlyWrt 6.1.y
Linux-tux.svg rk3328-XYZ-multiple-os-YYYYMMDD-25g.img.gz - It contains multiple OS image files, making it convenient for testing different operating systems Tools (optional)

Visit download link to download tools (in the "05_Tools" directory).

Filename Description
win32diskimager.rar This program is designed to write a raw disk image to a removable device or backup a removable device to a raw image file
SD Card Formatter A program (application) that allows easy and quick clear the SD card Rockchip flashing tool, for USB upgrade

4.4.2 Flashing the OS to the microSD card

Follow the steps below:

  • Get an 8G microSD card;
  • Visit download linkto download image files (in the "01_Official images/01_SD card images" directory);
  • Download the win32diskimager tool (in the "05_Tools" directory), or use your preferred tool;
  • Extract the .gz format compressed file to get the .img format image file;
  • Run the win32diskimager utility under Windows as administrator. On the utility's main window select your SD card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the SD card.
  • Take out the SD and insert it to NanoPi-R2C's microSD card slot;
  • Power on NanoPi-R2C and it will be booted from your TF card, some models may require pressing the Power button to start;

5 Work with FriendlyWrt

5.1 Introduction to FriendlyWrt

FriendlyWrt is a customized system made by FriendlyElec based on an OpenWrt distribution. It is open source and well suitable for developing IoT applications, NAS applications etc.

5.2 First boot

For the first boot, the system needs to do the following initialization work:
1)Extended root file system
2)Initial setup(will execute /root/
So you need to wait for a while (about 2~3 minutes) to boot up for the first time, and then set FriendlyWrt, you can enter the ttyd terminal on the openwrt webpage, when the prompt is displayed as root@FriendlyWrt, it means the system has been initialized.


5.3 Account & Password

The default password is password (empty password in some versions). Please set or change a safer password for web login and ssh login. It is recommended to complete this setting before connecting NanoPi-R2C to the Internet.

5.4 Login FriendlyWrt

Connect the PC to the LAN port of NanoPi-R2C. If your PC without a built-in ethernet port, connect the LAN port of the wireless AP to the LAN port of NanoPi-R2C, and then connect your PC to the wireless AP via WiFi , Enter the following URL on your PC's browser to access the admin page:

The above is the LAN port address of NanoPi-R2C. The IP address of the WAN port will be dynamically obtained from your main router through DHCP.

5.5 Recommended security settings

The following settings are highly recommended to complete before connecting NanoPi-R2C to the Internet。

  • Set a secure password
  • Only allow access to ssh from lan, change the port
  • Check the firewall settings

Set up as you wish.

5.6 Change LAN IP in LuCI

1) Click on Network → Interfaces, then click on the Edit button of the LAN Network;
2) In General Setup tab, input new IP address (for example:, click "Save" and then click "Save & Apply";
3) On the pop-up window with the title “Connectivity change“, click "Apply and revert on connectivity loss";
4) Wait a moment, enter the new address in your computer's browser and login to FriendlyWrt;

5.7 Safe shutdown operation

Enter the "Services" -> "Terminal", enter the "poweroff" command and hit enter, wait until the led light is off, and then unplug the power supply.

5.8 Soft Factory Reset

Enter "System"->"Backup/Flash firmware",Click “Perform reset“ Button, Your device's settings will be reset to defaults like when FriendlyWrt was first installed.
You can also do this in the terminal:

firstboot && reboot

5.9 Install Software Packages

5.9.1 Set up openwrt official opkg source

sed -i -e 's/' /etc/opkg/distfeeds.conf
opkg update

5.9.2 Update Package List

Before install software packages update the package list:

$ opkg update

5.9.3 List Available Packages

$ opkg list

5.9.4 List Installed Packages

$ opkg list-installed

5.9.5 Install Packages

$ opkg install <package names>

5.9.6 Remove Packages

$ opkg remove <package names>

5.10 Disable IPv6

. /root/

5.11 Configure the function of the user button

By default, the user button is configured to reboot the device, as shown below:

echo 'BTN_1 1 /sbin/reboot' >> /etc/triggerhappy/triggers.d/example.conf

You can change its behavior by changing the configuration file above.

5.12 Configuring Quectel EC20 (4G module) dial-up networking

  • Go to "Network" -> "Interfaces"
  • Click "Delete" next to "WAN6", then click "Save & Apply"
  • Click "Edit" next to "WAN", in the "Device" drop-down menu, select "Ethernet Adapter: wwan0", in the "Protocol" drop-down menu, select "QMI Cellular" and click "Switch Protocol"
  • Click the "Modem Device" drop-down menu, select "/dev/cdc-wdm0", fill in the APN information (e.g. for China Mobile, enter "cmnet")
  • Click "Save" to close the dialog, Finally, click "Save & Apply" at the bottom of the page to initiate the dial-up process
  • Devices connected to LAN will have access to the Internet, If your device has a WiFi module, you can enable wireless AP functionality on the "Wireless" page and connect to the Internet via devices connected wirelessly

5.13 Some common issues of FriendlyWrt

  • Unable to dial up
    • Go to "Network" -> "Firewall" and set "Inbound Data", "Outbound Data" and "Forwarding" in "WAN Zone" to "Accept";
    • If you still cannot access the Internet, you can try to turn off IPV6;
  • Dial-up successful, but no outgoing traffic
    • Go to "Services" -> "Terminal" and type "fw4 reload" to try to reload the firewall settings again;
  • Unable to power on
    • Try to replace the power adapter and cable. It is recommended to use a power supply with specifications above 5V/2A;
    • Note that some fast chargers with Type-C interface will have a delay, it may take a few seconds to start providing power;
  • When doing secondary routing, the computer cannot connect to the Internet
    • If your main network is IPv4, and NanoPi-R2C works in IPv6, the computer may not be able to connect to the Internet. It is recommended to turn off IPv6 (the method is described later in this WiKi), or switch the main route to IPv6;
  • If you have questions or have better suggestions, please send an email to;

5.14 Use USB2LCD to view IP and temperature

Plug the USB2LCD module to the USB interface ofNanoPi-R2C and power on, the IP address and CPU temperature will be displayed on the LCD:

5.15 How to use USB WiFi

5.15.1 Check USB WiFi Device with Command Line Utility

(1) Click on "services>ttyd" to start the command line utility
(2) Make sure no USB devices are connected to your board and run the following command to check if any USB devices are connected or not


(3) Connect a USB WiFi device to the board and run the command again


You will see a new device is detected. In our test the device's ID was 0BDA:C811
(4) Type your device's ID (in our case it was "0BDA:C811" or "VID_0BDA&PID_C811") in a search engine and you may find a device that matches the ID. In our case the device we got was Realtek 8811CU.

5.15.2 Configure a USB WiFi Device as AP

(1) Connect a USB WiFi device to the NanoPi-R2C. We recommend you to use the following devices:
Note: devices that match these VID&PIDs would most likely work.
(2) Click on "System>Reboot" and reboot your NanoPi-R2C

(3) Click on "Network>Wireless" to enter the WiFi configuration page
(4) Click on "Edit" to edit the configuration
(5) On the "Interface Configuration" page you can set the WiFi mode and SSID, and then go to "Wireless Security" to change the password. By default the password is "password". After you make your changes click on "Save" to save

(6) After you change the settings you can use a smartphone or PC to search for WiFi

5.15.3 Common USB WiFi issues

1) It is recommended to plug in the usb wifi in the off state, then power it on, FriendlyWrt will automatically generate the configuration file /etc/config/wireless, if not, see if there is wlan0 by ifconfig -a, if there is no wlan0, usually there is no driver.
2) If ifconfig -a sees wlan0, but the hotspot is not working properly, try changing the channel and country code, an inappropriate country code can also cause the WiFi to not work.
3) Some USB WiFis (e.g. MTK MT7662) work in CD-ROM mode by default and need to be switched by usb_modeswitch, you can try to add usb_modeswitch configuration to the following directory: /etc/usb_modeswitch.d.

5.15.4 Change the default WiFi hotspot configuration

FriendlyWrt sets the country, hotspot name and other parameters for USB WiFi by default, with the aim of being as plug-and-play as possible, but this does not guarantee that all modules will be compatible with this setting, you can change these behaviors by modifying the following file:


5.16 Work with Docker Applications

5.16.1 Work with Docker: Install JellyFin

mkdir -p /jellyfin/config
mkdir -p /jellyfin/videos
docker run --restart=always -d -p 8096:8096 -v /jellyfin/config:/config -v /jellyfin/videos:/videos jellyfin/jellyfin:10.1.0-arm64 -name myjellyfin

After installation, visit port 8096 and here is what you would find:

5.16.2 Work with Docker: Install Personal Nextcloud

mkdir /nextcloud -p
docker run -d -p 8888:80  --name nextcloud  -v /nextcloud/:/var/www/html/ --restart=always --privileged=true  arm64v8/nextcloud

After installtion, visit port 8888.

5.16.3 Expand Docker Storage

  • Stop docker service first:
/etc/init.d/dockerd stop
  • Rename the original /opt directory, create an empty /opt directory:
mv /opt /opt-old && mkdir /opt
  • Format your drive as ext4, and mount it to the /opt directory:

Friendlywrt mount nvme opt-en.jpg

  • Enter the command "mount | grep /opt" to check the mount status:
root@FriendlyWrt:~# mount | grep /opt
/dev/nvme0n1p1 on /opt type ext4 (rw,relatime)
  • Copy the files from the original /opt directory to the new /opt directory:
cp -af /opt-old/* /opt/ && rm -rf /opt-old
  • Reboot the device
  • After reboot, go to the "Docker" -> "Overview" page, check the information in the "Docker Root Dir" line, you can see that the Docker space has been expanded:

Friendlywrt docker info-en.jpg

5.16.4 Docker FAQ and solutions Unable to access the network services provided by the Docker container


  • Go to the "Firewall" settings and set "Forwarding" to "Accept";
  • Turn off "Software Offload";

5.17 Mount smbfs

mount -t cifs // /movie -o username=xxx,password=yyy,file_mode=0644

5.18 Use sdk to compile the package

5.18.1 Install the compilation environment

Download and run the following script on 64-bit Ubuntu (version 18.04+): How to setup the Compiling Environment on Ubuntu bionic

5.18.2 Download and decompress sdk from the network disk

The sdk is located in the toolchain directory of the network disk:

tar xvf openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64.tar.xz
# If the path is too long, it will cause some package compilation errors, so change the directory name here
mv openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64 sdk
cd sdk
./scripts/feeds update -a
./scripts/feeds install -a

5.18.3 Compile the package

download the source code of the example (a total of 3 examples are example1, example2, example3), and copy to the package directory:

git clone
cp -rf openwrt-examples/example* package/
rm -rf openwrt-examples/

Then enter the configuration menu through the following command:

make menuconfig

In the menu, select the following packages we want to compile (actually selected by default):

"Utilities" => "example1"
"Utilities" => "example3"
"Network" => "VPN" => "example2"

execute the following commands to compile the three software packages:

make package/example1/compile V=99
make package/example2/compile V=99
make package/example3/compile V=99

After the compilation is successful, you can find the ipk file in the bin directory, as shown below:

$ find ./bin -name example*.ipk

5.18.4 Install the ipk to NanoPi

You can use the scp command to upload the ipk file to NanoPi:

cd ./bin/packages/aarch64_generic/base/
scp example*.ipk root@

Then use the opkg command to install them:

cd /root/
opkg install example3_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example1_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example2_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk

5.19 Build FriendlyWrt using GitHub Actions

Please refre this link:

6 Work with FriendlyCore

6.1 FriendlyCore User Account

  • Non-root User:
   User Name: pi
   Password: pi
  • Root:
   User Name: root
   Password: fa

6.2 Update Software Packages

$ sudo apt-get update

6.3 Setup Network Configurations

6.3.1 Set static IP address

By default "eth0" is assigned an IP address obtained via dhcp. If you want to change the setting you need to change the following file:

vi /etc/network/interfaces.d/eth0

For example if you want to assign a static IP to it you can run the following commands:

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static

6.3.2 Set a DNS

You also need to modify the following file to add the DNS configuration:

vi /etc/systemd/resolved.conf

For example, set to


Restart the systemd-resolved service with the following command:

sudo systemctl restart systemd-resolved.service
sudo systemctl enable systemd-resolved.service

6.3.3 Set up to use another network interface

To change the setting of "eth1" you can add a new file similar to eth0's configuration file under the /etc/network/interfaces.d/ directory.

6.4 Setup Wi-Fi

First, use the following command to check if Network-Manager is installed on your system:

which nmcli

If you have installed it, refer to this link to connect to WiFi: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings, If you do not have Network-Manager installed on your system, please refer to the following method to configure WiFi,
By default the WiFi device is "wlan0". You need to create a configuration file under "/etc/network/interfaces.d/" for WiFi:

vi /etc/network/interfaces.d/wlan0

Here is a sample wlan0 file:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
wpa-driver wext
wpa-ssid YourWiFiESSID
wpa-ap-scan 1
wpa-proto RSN
wpa-pairwise CCMP
wpa-group CCMP
wpa-key-mgmt WPA-PSK
wpa-psk YourWiFiPassword

Please replace "YourWiFiESSID" and "YourWiFiPassword" with your WiFiESSID and password. After save and close the file you can connect to your WiFi source by running the following command:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart networking

After you power on your board it will automatically connect to your WiFi source.
Please note that if you use one TF card to boot multiple boards the WiFi device name will likely be named to "wlan1", "wlan2" and etc. You can reset it to "wlan0" by deleting the contents of the following file and reboot your board: /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules

6.4.1 WiFi models supported M.2 WiFi Module
  • RTL8822CE Usb Dongle
  • RTL8821CU (Vid: 0BDA, Pid: C811) (Test sample:TP-Link TL-WDN5200H)
  • RTL8812AU (Vid: 0BDA, Pid: 8812)
  • MediaTek MT7662 (Vid: 0E8D, Pid: 7612) (Test sample:COMFAST CF-WU782AC V2)

6.5 Install the kernel-header package

sudo dpkg -i /opt/linux-headers-*.deb

6.6 Build kernel-header deb package

Please refre to:

6.7 Config status LEDs

First determine whether the system already exists the leds initialization service:

sudo systemctl status leds

If the leds service already exists, change the default behavior of the LEDs by editing the following file:


Since there is no leds service in the early firmware, you need to refer to the following guide to manually configure the LEDs. First, set the following kernel modules to be automatically loaded at boot:

modprobe ledtrig-netdev
echo ledtrig-netdev > /etc/modules-load.d/ledtrig-netdev.conf

Put the following into the autorun script to associate the status leds with the ethernet interface, and you can configure it to behave in other ways by referring to these content:

echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/trigger
echo eth0 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/link
echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/trigger
echo eth1 > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/link

6.8 Delete Qt5 and related files

Execute the following commands:

su root
cd /
rm -rf usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-5.10.0-rk64one usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-5.10.0-rk64one-sdk usr/bin/setqt5env* usr/bin/qt5demo etc/qt5
rm -rf opt/{qt5-browser,Qt5_CinematicExperience,qt5-multi-screen-demo,qt5-nmapper,qt5-player,qt5-smarthome,QtE-Demo,qt5-qml-image-viewer,dual-camera}

7 Work with Debian Core

7.1 Account & Password

Regular Account:
    User Name: pi
    Password: pi

    the root user account is disabled by default, you may configure the root password through the 'sudo passwd root' command.

7.2 View IP address

Since the Debian Bullseye hostname is the hardware model by default, you can use the ping command to get the IP address:ping NanoPi-R2C
Debian Bullseye uses network-manager to manage the network, and the network ports are configured to automatically obtain IP addresses by DHCP (including devices with multiple network ports).

7.3 Connect to Debian via SSH

Run the following commandssh pi@NanoPi-R2C
The default password is: pi

7.4 Update Software Packages

$ sudo apt-get update

7.5 Change time zone

7.5.1 Check the current time zone


7.5.2 List all available time zones

timedatectl list-timezones

7.5.3 Set the time zone (e.g. Shanghai)

sudo timedatectl set-timezone Asia/Shanghai

Replace the following two files in the kernel source code directory and recompile the kernel:
Or use the script to operate, as shown below:

  • Download scripts:
git clone -b kernel-4.19 --single-branch
cd sd-fuse_rk3328
  • Compile kernel and repackage firmware
convert files/logo.jpg -type truecolor /tmp/logo.bmp
convert files/logo.jpg -type truecolor /tmp/logo_kernel.bmp
sudo LOGO=/tmp/logo.bmp KERNEL_LOGO=/tmp/logo_kernel.bmp ./ debian-bookworm-core-arm64
sudo ./ debian-bookworm-core-arm64
sudo ./ debian-bookworm-core-arm64

7.7 Soft Factory Reset

Execute the following command in a terminal:

sudo firstboot && sudo reboot

7.8 Install Docker on Debian

Please refer to: How to Install Docker on Debian

8 Buildroot Linux

Buildroot is a simple, efficient and easy-to-use tool to generate embedded Linux systems through cross-compilation. It contains a boot-loader, kernel, rootfs, various libraries and utilities(e.g. qt, gstreamer, busybox etc).

FriendlyELEC's Buildroot is based on Rockchip's version which is made with linux-sdk and maintained with git. FriendlyELEC's version is synced with Rockchip's version;

For a more detailed description of the Buildroot system, please refer to: Buildroot

9 How to Compile

9.1 Setup Development Environment

9.1.1 Method 1: Using docker to cross-compile

Please refre to docker-cross-compiler-novnc

9.1.2 Method 2: Setup build environment on the host machine Install required packages

Install and run requirements ubuntu 20.04, install required packages using the following commands:

sudo apt-get -y update
sudo apt-get install -y sudo curl
sudo bash -c \
  "$(curl -fsSL"

The following cross-compilers will be installed:

Version Architecture Compiler path Purpose
4.9.3 armhf /opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/4.9.3 Can be used to build 32-bit ARM applications
6.4 aarch64 /opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/6.4-aarch64 Can be used to build kernel 4.4
11.3 aarch64 /opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64 Can be used to build kernel 4.19 or higher and U-Boot Setting the compiler path

Based on the table in the previous section, select the appropriate version of the compiler and add the compiler's path to PATH. For example, if you want to use the 11.3 cross-compiler, edit ~/.bashrc using vi and add the following content to the end:

export PATH=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/bin:$PATH
export GCC_COLORS=auto

Run the ~/.bashrc script to make it effective in the current commandline. Note: there is a space after ".":

. ~/.bashrc

To verify if the installation was successful:

$ aarch64-linux-gcc -v
Using built-in specs.
Target: aarch64-cortexa53-linux-gnu
Configured with: /home/cross/arm64/src/gcc/configure --build=x86_64-build_pc-linux-gnu --host=x86_64-build_pc-linux-gnu --target=aarch64-cortexa53-linux-gnu --prefix=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64 --exec_prefix=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64 --with-sysroot=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/aarch64-cortexa53-linux-gnu/sysroot --enable-languages=c,c++ --enable-fix-cortex-a53-843419 --with-arch=armv8-a+crypto+crc --with-cpu=cortex-a53 --with-pkgversion=ctng-1.25.0-119g-FA --with-bugurl= --enable-objc-gc --enable-__cxa_atexit --disable-libmudflap --disable-libgomp --disable-libssp --disable-libquadmath --disable-libquadmath-support --disable-libsanitizer --disable-libmpx --with-gmp=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --with-mpfr=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --with-mpc=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --with-isl=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --enable-lto --enable-threads=posix --disable-libstdcxx-pch --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-libstdcxx-time=yes --with-default-libstdcxx-abi=new --enable-gnu-indirect-function --enable-gnu-unique-object --enable-default-pie --enable-linker-build-id --with-linker-hash-style=gnu --enable-plugin --enable-gold --with-libintl-prefix=/home/cross/arm64/buildtools --disable-multilib --with-local-prefix=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/aarch64-cortexa53-linux-gnu/sysroot --enable-long-long --enable-checking=release --enable-link-serialization=2
Thread model: posix
Supported LTO compression algorithms: zlib
gcc version 11.3.0 (ctng-1.25.0-119g-FA)

9.2 Build Openwrt/Friendlywrt

9.2.1 Download Code

Two versions are available, please choose as required: FriendlyWrt 21.02
mkdir friendlywrt21-rk3328
cd friendlywrt21-rk3328
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v21.02 \
        -m rk3328.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle FriendlyWrt 23.05
mkdir friendlywrt23-rk3328
cd friendlywrt23-rk3328
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v23.05 \
        -m rk3328.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle

9.2.2 First compilation step

./  # or

All the components (including u-boot, kernel, and friendlywrt) are compiled and the sd card image will be generated, then execute the following command to generate the image file for installing the system into the emmc:

./ emmc-img

After making changes to the project, the sd card image needs to be repackaged by running the following command:

./ sd-img

9.2.3 Secondary compilation steps

cd friendlywrt
make menuconfig
rm -rf ./tmp
make -j${nproc}
cd ../
./ sd-img
./ emmc-img

9.2.4 Build u-boot only

./ uboot

9.2.5 Build kernel only

./ kernel

9.2.6 Build friendlywrt only

./ friendlywrt

Or go to the friendlywrt directory and follow the standard openwrt commands. If you get an error with the above command, try using the following command to compile in a single thread:

cd friendlywrt
make -j1 V=s

9.3 Build Buildroot

please refer to: Buildroot

9.4 Build Other Linux

9.4.1 Kernel and u-boot versions

Operating System Kernel Version U-boot version Cross-compiler Partition type Packaging Tool Kernel branch Kernel configuration U-boot branch U-boot configuration
buildroot linux v4.19.y u-boot
11.3-aarch64 GPT sd-fuse nanopi4-v4.19.y nanopi4_linux_defconfig nanopi4-v2017.09 nanopi_r2_defconfig
openmediavault-arm64 linux v6.1.y GPT
nanopi-r2-v6.1.y nanopi-r2_linux_defconfig
ubuntu-noble-core-arm64 GPT
friendlywrt21 nanopi-r2_linux_defconfig

9.4.2 Build kernel linux-v4.19.y

This section applies to the following operating systems:

buildroot friendlycore-focal-arm64

Clone the repository to your local drive then build:

git clone --single-branch --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v4.19.y kernel-rockchip
cd kernel-rockchip
export PATH=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/bin/:$PATH
touch .scmversion
# Configuring the Kernel
# Load default configuration
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- nanopi4_linux_defconfig
# Optionally, load configuration for FriendlyWrt
# make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- nanopi4_linux_defconfig friendlywrt.config
# Optionally, if you want to change the default kernel config
# make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- menuconfig
# Start building kernel
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- nanopi4-images -j$(nproc)
# Start building kernel modules
mkdir -p out-modules
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- INSTALL_MOD_PATH="$PWD/out-modules" modules -j$(nproc)
make ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux- INSTALL_MOD_PATH="$PWD/out-modules" modules_install
KERNEL_VER=$(make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 kernelrelease)
rm -rf $PWD/out-modules/lib/modules/${KERNEL_VER}/kernel/drivers/gpu/arm/mali400/
[ ! -f "$PWD/out-modules/lib/modules/${KERNEL_VER}/modules.dep" ] && depmod -b $PWD/out-modules -E Module.symvers -F -w ${KERNEL_VER}
(cd $PWD/out-modules && find . -name \*.ko | xargs aarch64-linux-strip --strip-unneeded)

After the compilation, the following files will be generated:

kernel.img resource.img The kernel modules are located in the out-modules directory

Run your build:
Please refre to #Running the build

9.4.3 Build kernel linux-v6.1.y

This section applies to the following operating systems:

friendlywrt21 friendlywrt21-docker friendlywrt23 friendlywrt23-docker ubuntu-noble-core-arm64 openmediavault-arm64 debian-bookworm-core-arm64

Clone the repository to your local drive then build:

git clone --single-branch --depth 1 -b nanopi-r2-v6.1.y kernel-rockchip
cd kernel-rockchip
export PATH=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/bin/:$PATH
touch .scmversion
# Configuring the Kernel
# Load default configuration
make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 nanopi-r2_linux_defconfig
# Optionally, load configuration for FriendlyWrt
# make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 nanopi-r2_linux_defconfig friendlywrt.config
# Optionally, if you want to change the default kernel config
# make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 menuconfig
# Start building kernel
make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 -j$(nproc)
# Start building kernel modules
mkdir -p out-modules && rm -rf out-modules/*
make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 INSTALL_MOD_PATH="$PWD/out-modules" modules -j$(nproc)
make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 INSTALL_MOD_PATH="$PWD/out-modules" modules_install
KERNEL_VER=$(make CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- ARCH=arm64 kernelrelease)
[ ! -f "$PWD/out-modules/lib/modules/${KERNEL_VER}/modules.dep" ] && depmod -b $PWD/out-modules -E Module.symvers -F -w ${KERNEL_VER}
(cd $PWD/out-modules && find . -name \*.ko | xargs aarch64-linux-strip --strip-unneeded)

Pack the kernel.img and resource.img:

wget && chmod 755 mkkrnlimg
wget && chmod 755 resource_tool
./mkkrnlimg arch/arm64/boot/Image kernel.img
./resource_tool --dtbname arch/arm64/boot/dts/rockchip/rk3328-nanopi*-rev*.dtb logo.bmp logo_kernel.bmp

After the compilation, the following files will be generated:

kernel.img resource.img The kernel modules are located in the out-modules directory

Run your build:
Please refre to #Running the build

9.4.4 Build u-boot v2017.09

This section applies to the following operating systems:

buildroot friendlycore-focal-arm64 friendlywrt21 friendlywrt21-docker friendlywrt23 friendlywrt23-docker ubuntu-noble-core-arm64 openmediavault-arm64 debian-bookworm-core-arm64

Clone the repository to your local drive then build:

git clone --single-branch --depth 1 -b friendlyelec
git clone --single-branch --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v2017.09
export PATH=/opt/FriendlyARM/toolchain/11.3-aarch64/bin/:$PATH
cd uboot-rockchip/
./ nanopi_r2

After the compilation, the following files will be generated:

uboot.img trust.img rk3328_loader_v1.16.250.bin (aka MiniLoaderAll.bin)

Run your build:
Please refre to #Running the build

9.4.5 Running the build Install to target board

This section applies to the following operating systems:

buildroot friendlycore-focal-arm64 friendlywrt21 friendlywrt21-docker friendlywrt23 friendlywrt23-docker ubuntu-noble-core-arm64 openmediavault-arm64 debian-bookworm-core-arm64

RK3328 uses GPT partitions by default, you can use the dd command, but be careful to choose the right output device:

  • The SD/TF Card device node: /dev/mmcblk0
  • The eMMC device node: /dev/mmcblk2

The following is an example of how to update the kernel to eMMC:
Use the 'parted' command to view the partition layout:

parted /dev/mmcblk2 print

Sample outputs:

Model: MMC BJTD4R (sd/mmc)
Disk /dev/mmcblk2: 31.3GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:
Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name      Flags
 1      8389kB  12.6MB  4194kB               uboot
 2      12.6MB  16.8MB  4194kB               trust
 3      16.8MB  21.0MB  4194kB               misc
 4      21.0MB  25.2MB  4194kB               dtbo
 5      25.2MB  41.9MB  16.8MB               resource
 6      41.9MB  83.9MB  41.9MB               kernel
 7      83.9MB  134MB   50.3MB               boot
 8      134MB   2500MB  2366MB  ext4         rootfs
 9      2500MB  31.3GB  28.8GB  ext4         userdata

as shown above, the resource partition is located at 5 and the kernel partition is located at 6. Use the dd command to write the resource.img and kernel.img files to these partitions, the commands are as follows:

dd if=resource.img of=/dev/mmcblk2p5 bs=1M
dd if=kernel.img of=/dev/mmcblk2p6 bs=1M

If you want to update u-boot:

dd if=uboot.img of=/dev/mmcblk2p1 bs=1M

To update new driver modules, copy the newly compiled driver modules to the appropriate directory under /lib/modules. Packaging and creating an SD image

To create a new OS image file, you need to use the "sd-fuse" packaging tool.

"sd-fuse" is a collection of scripts that can be used to create bootable SD card images for FriendlyElec boards. Its main features include:

  • Creation of root filesystem images from a directory
  • Building of bootable SD card images
  • Simple compilation of kernel, U-Boot, and third-party drivers

Please click on the following link to find out more:

Kernel version Packaging Tool
linux v4.19.y sd-fuse_rk3328/kernel-4.19
linux v6.1.y sd-fuse_rk3328/kernel-6.1.y USB flashing Linux

Reboot the board and enter loader mode with the following command:

sudo reboot loader

To flash U-Boot and kernel using the "upgrade_tool_v2.17_for_linux" tool, please use the following command:

sudo upgrade_tool di -k kernel.img
sudo upgrade_tool di -re resource.img
sudo upgrade_tool di -u uboot.img
sudo upgrade_tool RD

Note: "upgrade_tool" is a command-line tool provided by Rockchip for Linux operating systems (Linux_Upgrade_Tool).

9.5 Build the code using scripts

9.5.1 Download scripts and image files

git clone -b kernel-4.19
cd sd-fuse_rk3328
tar xvzf friendlycore-focal-arm64-images.tgz

9.5.2 Compile the kernel

Download the kernel source code and compile it. the relevant image files in the friendlycore-focal-arm64 directory will be automatically updated, including the kernel modules in the file system:

git clone --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v4.19.y kernel-rk3328
KERNEL_SRC=$PWD/kernel-rk3328 ./ friendlycore-focal-arm64

9.5.3 Compile the kernel headers

git clone --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v4.19.y kernel-rk3328
MK_HEADERS_DEB=1 BUILD_THIRD_PARTY_DRIVER=0 KERNEL_SRC=$PWD/kernel-rk3328 ./ friendlycore-focal-arm64

9.5.4 Compile the uboot

Download the uboot source code and compile it. the relevant image files in the friendlycore-focal-arm64 directory will be automatically updated:

git clone --depth 1 -b nanopi4-v2017.09
UBOOT_SRC=$PWD/uboot-rockchip ./ friendlycore-focal-arm64

9.5.5 Generate new image

Repackage the image file in the friendlycore-focal-arm64 directory into sd card image:

./ friendlycore-focal-arm64

After the command is completed, the image is in the out directory, you can use the dd command to make the SD boot card, for example:

dd if=out/rk3328-sd-friendlycore-focal-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img of=/dev/sdX bs=1M

10 Backup rootfs and create custom SD image (to burn your application into other boards)

10.1 Backup rootfs

Run the following commands on your target board. These commands will back up the entire root partition:

sudo passwd root
su root
cd /
tar --warning=no-file-changed -cvpzf /rootfs.tar.gz \
    --exclude=/rootfs.tar.gz --exclude=/var/lib/docker/runtimes \
    --exclude=/etc/firstuser --exclude=/etc/friendlyelec-release \
    --exclude=/usr/local/first_boot_flag --one-file-system /

Note: if there is a mounted directory on the system, an error message will appear at the end, which can be ignored.

10.2 Making a bootable SD card from a root filesystem

Run the following script on your Linux PC host, we'll only mention "ubuntu-noble-core-arm64 os" for brevity, but you can apply the same process for every linux OS.

su root
git clone --single-branch -b kernel-6.1.y
cd sd-fuse_rk3328
tar xvzf /path/to/netdrive/03_Partition\ image\ files/ubuntu-noble-core-arm64-images.tgz
tar xvzf /path/to/netdrive/03_Partition\ image\ files/emmc-eflasher-images.tgz
scp pi@BOARDIP:/rootfs.tar.gz /rootfs.tar.gz
mkdir rootfs
tar xvzfp rootfs.tar.gz -C rootfs --numeric-owner --same-owner
./ rootfs ubuntu-noble-core-arm64
./ ubuntu-noble-core-arm64
./ ubuntu-noble-core-arm64 autostart=yes

11 Common Linux-based operating system operations

11.1 Using ADB on Linux Systems

11.1.1 Enabling ADB in Buildroot System

Enable on Startup

mv /etc/init.d/K50usbdevice /etc/init.d/S50usbdevice

Enable Temporarily

usbdevice-wrapper start

11.1.2 Enabling ADB in Ubuntu and Debian Systems

Enable on Startup

sudo systemctl enable usbdevice
sudo reboot

Enable Temporarily

usbdevice-wrapper start

11.1.3 How to Connect

When using ADB, the port connected to the computer is the same as the USB flashing port.

11.2 Install Kernel Headers

sudo dpkg -i /opt/archives/linux-headers-*.deb

12 More OS Support

12.1 DietPi

DietPi is a highly optimised & minimal Debian-based Linux distribution. DietPi is extremely lightweight at its core, and also extremely easy to install and use.
Setting up a single board computer (SBC) or even a computer, for both regular or server use, takes time and skill. DietPi provides an easy way to install and run favourite software you choose.
For more information, please visit this link

DietPi supports many of the NanoPi board series, you may download the image file from here:

13 Resources

13.1 Datasheets and Schematics

14 Update Logs

14.1 2024-04-21

14.1.1 OpenMediaVault

  • Update to 7.0.5-1
  • Update to Debian12

14.2 2024-01-31

14.2.1 Debian/Ubuntu/FriendlyCore/Buildroot

  • Add adb support

14.3 2023-12-01

14.3.1 FriendlyWrt

  • Update to kernel 6.1.63
  • Update to openwrt-23.05.2

14.4 2023-10-31

14.4.1 Add a new system

  • Add NAS system OpenMediaVault, base on Debian 11 with kernel 6.1

14.4.2 Debian Core/FriendlyCore-Lite-Core

  • Update to kernel 6.1

14.4.3 FriendlyWrt

  • Update to kernel 6.1
  • Update to openwrt-23.05

14.5 2023-05-29

14.5.1 Debian11 Core

  • Fixed the issue that R2C Plus cannot boot

14.6 2023-05-26

14.6.1 FriendlyWrt

  • Updated v22.03 to openwrt-22.03.5
  • Updated v21.02 to openwrt-21.02.7

14.7 2023-04-26

14.7.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgrade v22.03 to openwrt-22.03.4
  • Upgrade v21.02 to openwrt-21.02.6

14.8 2023-02-10

  • Added Debian11 Core

14.9 2023-01-09

14.9.1 FriendlyCore:

  • optimized the systemd service

14.10 2022-12-04

14.10.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Fix the issue that the storage space cannot be expanded
  • Improve stability of the eMMC Tools

14.11 2022-09-06

14.11.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Added Fullcone NAT support
  • upgrade to 22.03.0

14.12 2022-08-03

14.12.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgrade FriendlyWrt to the latest version 22.03-rc6

14.13 2022-08-01

14.13.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Firewall settings adjustment: single-port devices (e.g. NEO3) are set to allow WAN inbound traffic by default for easy web configuration, while multi-port devices are still denied WAN inbound traffic by default

14.14 2022-07-27

14.14.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Both docker and non-docker versions are available, all features are the same except for docker.
  • Beta version 22.03-rc3 is available, you can choose according to your package requirements, stable version 21.02.3 is recommended.
  • Improved compatibility issues with third-party packages
  • Added support for "Soft Factory Reset" function
  • Added web-based tool eMMC-Tools, support install FriendlyElec and some third party firmware to eMMC, besides raw-image also support rockchip package format firmware
  • Other details: default timezone setting to Shanghai, new NAS category menu, remove lcd2usb, improve security settings, tune sysctl parameters, fix docker firewall settings, etc.

14.15 2021-12-02

  • Improved the compatibility of the FriendlyWrt software package installation
  • Fixed the issue that some sd cards would cause the reboot command to not respond (updated the 5.10 kernel)
  • Configure the USB header on NanoPi-NEO3 to host mode by default

14.16 2021-10-29

14.16.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • FriendlyWrt has been updated to the official stable version 21.02.1, features are basically the same as 19.07.5, support docker, usb wifi, etc.

14.17 2021-08-30

14.17.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgraded kernel to 5.10.60
  • Add a high-speed 5G USB WiFi support, the network card model is Comfast CF-WU782AC V2, the chip model is MediaTek MT7662
  • Improved USB WiFi compatibility
  • Improved stability on first boot (previous version, bpfilter error occurred in some cases on first boot)

14.17.2 FriendlyCore:

  • upgraded kernel to 5.10.60

14.18 2021-03-05

  • Upgrade FriendlyCore to 20.04 (base on ubuntu focal)

14.19 2021-01-15

  • upgraded kernel to 5.10
  • upgraded friendlywrt to 19.07.5

14.20 2020-09-04

  • Improved the stability of the usb3.0 driver (integrated with official Rockchip updates) and the stability of the r8153 ethernet card
  • Update the driver of the 8153 ethernet card, using mainline kernel's version, the version is v1.11.11
  • Enable serial port UART1 for R2S and NEO3

14.21 2020-08-31

  • Kernel updated to 5.4.61
  • Use the driver r8152-2.13.0 downloaded from Realtek official website (
  • Improve the USB network card driver, WLAN<->LAN bridge speed can reach 700/500 Mbits/sec
  • Add rockhip rng (hardware random number) driver

14.22 2020-07-10

14.22.1 FriendlyWrt

  • upgraded kernel to 5.4.50
  • added support for NanoPi-NEO3

14.23 2020-05-14

14.23.1 FriendlyWrt

  • upgraded kernel to 5.4.40,fixed bpfilter issue
  • added new usb wifi(rtl8812au)
  • fixed overlayfs issue

14.24 2020-02-25

14.24.1 FriendlyWrt update to v19.07.1,please use branch master-v19.07.1:
mkdir friendlywrt-rk3328
cd friendlywrt-rk3328
repo init -u -b master-v19.07.1 -m rk3328.xml --repo-url= --no-clone-bundle
repo sync -c --no-clone-bundle fixed some issues:
  • fixed bpfilter module issue
  • updated feeds to the latest commit
  • removed modemmanager and mwan3 plugins
  • adjusted cpu scaling governor, optimized startup speed

14.25 2020-02-20

14.25.1 FriendlyWrt

  • Optimized openssl performance
  • Added support for PWM fan, support fan speed control (platform: rk33xx)

14.26 2020-01-18

Initial Release