NanoPi R5S

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Contents

1 Introduction

Overview
Front
Back
Case
Case
Case
Case

The NanoPi R5S (as “R5S”) is an open-sourced mini IoT gateway device with two 2.5G and one Gbps Ethernet ports, designed and developed by FriendlyElec.It is integrated with a Rockchip RK3568B2 CPU, 2GB/4GB LPDDR4x RAM and 8GB eMMC flash. It supports booting with TF cards and works with operating systems such as FriendlyWrt etc.

The NanoPi R5S has rich hardware resources with a compact size of 90 x 62 mm. FriendlyElec has released a carefully-designed custom CNC housing for it. It has one HDMI port. It works with Android, Ubuntu Desktop and Buildroot etc and works with headless systems as well. It supports decoding 4K60p H.265/H.264 formatted videos.

The NanoPi R5S has one M.2 NVME port, two USB 3.2 Gen 1 ports, and supports USB type-C power delivery. It is an ideal portable drive for saving images and videos.

All in all, the NanoPi R5S is a board featured with multiple Ethernet ports, light NAS and video playing. It is a cannot-miss platform with infinite possibilities for geeks, fans and developers.

2 Hardware Spec

  • SoC: Rockchip RK3568B2
    • CPU: Quad-core ARM Cortex-A55 CPU, up to 2.0GHz
    • GPU: Mali-G52 1-Core-2EE,supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, and 3.2, Vulkan 1.0 and 1.1, OpenCL 2.0 Full Profile
    • VPU: 4KP60 H.265/H.264/VP9 video decoder, 1080P60 H.264/H.265 video encoder
    • NPU: Support 0.8T
  • RAM: 2GB LPDDR4X
  • Flash: 8GB eMMC
  • Ethernet: one Native Gigabit Ethernet, and two PCIe 2.5Gbps Ethernet
  • USB: two USB 3.2 Gen 1 Type-A ports
  • HDMI:
    • support HDMI1.4 and HDMI2.0 operation
    • support up to 10 bits Deep Color modes
    • support up to 1080p@120Hz and 4096x2304@60Hz
    • support 3-D video formats
  • PCIe: M.2 Key M, PCIe2.1 x1, support NVME, PCIe WiFi etc
  • microSD: support UHS-I
  • GPIO:
    • 12-pin 0.5mm FPC connector
    • up to 1x SPI, up to 3x UARTs, up to 4x PWMs, up to 8x GPIOs
  • SD/MMC/SDIO/I2S:
    • 2x8-pin 1.27mm connector
    • Compatible with SDIO3.0 protocol
    • Compatible with SD3.0, MMC ver4.51
    • 4bits data bus widths
    • 1x I2S with 2x SDO and 3x SDI
  • Debug: one Debug UART, 3 Pin 2.54mm header, 3.3V level, 1500000bps
  • LEDs: 4 x GPIO Controlled LED (SYS, WAN, LAN1, LAN2)
  • others:
    • 2 Pin 1.27/1.25mm RTC battery input connector for low power RTC IC HYM8563TS
    • MASK button for eMMC update
    • one 5V Fan connector
  • Power supply: USB-C, support PD, 5V/9V/12V input
  • PCB: 8 Layer, 62x90x1.6mm
  • Ambient Operating Temperature: 0℃ to 70℃

3 Diagram, Layout and Dimension

3.1 Layout

NanoPi R5S Layout
  • 12-pin GPIO
Pin# GPIO SPI UART PWM POWER Description
1 VCC3V3_SYS 3.3V power output
2 VCC3V3_SYS 3.3V power output
3 GPIO3_C3 SPI1_CLK_M1 UART5_RX_M1 3.3V level
4 GND
5 GPIO3_C2 SPI1_MISOI_M1 UART5_TX_M1 3.3V level
6 GPIO3_A1 SPI1_CS0_M1 3.3V level
7 GPIO3_C1 SPI1_MOSI_M1 3.3V level
8 GND
9 GPIO4_C5 UART9_TX_M1 PWM12_M1 3.3V level
10 GPIO4_C6 UART9_RX_M1 PWM13_M1 3.3V level
11 GPIO3_C4 UART7_TX_M1 PWM14_M0 3.3V level
12 GPIO3_C5 UART7_RX_M1 PWM15_IR_M0 3.3V level
  • 2x8-pin SDIO/I2S
Pin# GPIO SD/MMC/SDIO I2S POWER Description
1 VCC5V0_SYS 5V power output
2 VCC5V0_SYS 5V power output
3 GPIO3_C6 SDMMC2_D0_M0 I2S1_MCLK_M1 1.8V level
4 GPIO3_C7 SDMMC2_D1_M0 I2S1_SCLK_TX_M1 1.8V level
5 GND
6 GND
7 GPIO3_D0 SDMMC2_D2_M0 I2S1_LRCK_TX_M1 1.8V level
8 GPIO3_D3 SDMMC2_CLK_M0 I2S1_SDI1_M1 1.8V level
9 GND
10 GND
11 GPIO3_D1 SDMMC2_D3_M0 I2S1_SDO0_M1 1.8V level
12 GPIO3_D2 SDMMC2_CMD_M0 I2S1_SDI0_M1 1.8V level
13 GND
14 GND
15 GPIO3_D5 SDMMC2_PWREN_M0 I2S1_SDI3_M1 1.8V level
16 GPIO3_D4 SDMMC2_DET_M0 I2S1_SDI2_M1 1.8V level
  • Debug UART Pin Spec
3.3V level signals, 1500000bps
Pin# Assignment Description
1 GND 0V
2 UART2DBG_TX output
3 UART2DBG_RX intput
  • USB Port
Each USB 3.2 Gen 1 port has 1.4A overcurrent protection.
  • RTC
RTC backup current is 0.25μA TYP (VDD =3.0V, TA =25℃).
Connector P/N: Molex 53398-0271

4 Get Started

4.1 Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi-R5S get the following items ready

  • NanoPi-R5S
  • MicroSD Card/TF Card: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • USB C PD Charger (10W & above)
  • If you need to develop and compile,you need a computer that can connect to the Internet. It is recommended to install Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit system and use the following script to initialize the development environment:

4.2 TF Cards We Tested

Refer to: TFCardsWeTested

4.3 PD Power Adapters We Tested

Refer to: PD Power Adapters We Tested

4.4 Configure parameters for serial port

Use the following serial parameters:

Baud rate 1500000
Data bit 8
Parity check None
Stop bit 1
Flow control None

4.5 Install OS

4.5.1 Flash to TF

Visit download linkto download image files (in the "01_Official images/01_SD card images" directory) and utilities (in the "05_Tools" directory):

Image Files
rk3568-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt lite image file, based on OpenWrt 21.02.3, kernel version 5.10.y
rk3568-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt with Docker image file, based on OpenWrt 21.02.3, kernel version 5.10.y
rk3568-sd-friendlycore-focal-5.10-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz 64-bit FriendlyCore Lite image file based on Ubuntu core 20.04 64bit, kernel version 5.10.y
Flash Utility:
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility. Under Linux users can use "dd"

The detailed steps are as follows:

  • Get an 8G SDHC card and backup its data if necessary;
  • Download and extract the xxx.img.gz and win32diskimager;
  • Run the win32diskimager utility under Windows as administrator. On the utility's main window select your SD card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the SD card. Under Linux run "dd" to flash the rkXXXX-sd-OSNAME-YYYYMMDD.img file to your SD card;
  • Take out the SD and insert it to NanoPi-R5S's microSD card slot;
  • Power on NanoPi-R5S and it will be booted from your TF card;

4.5.2 Install OS to eMMC

4.5.2.1 Option 1: Install OS on Web Page

Get a TF card which has been installed with FriendlyWrt, log in FriendlyWrt on the web page, click on “System” ->”eMMC Tools”. Click on “Select file” to select your wanted image file, either an official image (the name might start with “rk3568-sd”) or a third party image. The file should be a “.gz” or “.img” file.
After a file is selected, click on “Upload and Write” to start installing an OS.
Friendlywrt-emmctools2-en.png
After installation is done, eject the SD card, the system will automatically reboot and load the OS from eMMC. After the OS begins to load, if the system LED is flashing and the network LED is on, it means the the OS has loaded successfully. If the OS is FriendlyWrt, you can click on “Go to Homepage” to enter the homepage.
Note that if you are burning the FriendlyElec firmware, you need to use an image file with the "-sd-" file name, similar to the one below:

rk3568-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz
rk3568-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz

If the file is in 7z, zip or rar format, you will need to extract it first. If the file is too large to write, you can compress it into .gz format and try again.

4.5.2.2 Option 2: Install OS via TF Card
4.5.2.2.1 Install OS to eMMC
  • This method firstly boots a mini Linux from a TF card and then automatically runs an EFlasher utility to install the OS to eMMC.
  • You can connect your system to an HDMI monitor and watch its progress. This is optional. You can watch its progress by observing its LEDs as well.

Visit download link to download the needed utilities and image file:

Image File
rk3568-eflasher-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Based on OpenWrt 21.02.3
Kernel version 5.10.y
rk3568-eflasher-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Pre-installed Docker
Based on OpenWrt 21.02.3
Kernel version 5.10.y
rk3568-eflasher-debian-buster-desktop-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 10(buster) Desktop
Uses LXDE as default desktop
Pre-installed mpv, smplayer and chromium brower
Supports hardware acceleration
Kernel version 5.10.y
rk3568-eflasher-android12-YYYYMMDD.img.zip Android12
rk3568-eflasher-friendlycore-lite-focal-5.10-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyCore
Minimal system
Based on Ubuntu core 20.04
kernel version 5.10.y
Flash Utility:
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility. Under Linux users can use "dd"

Here are the steps:

  • Get an SDHC card with a minimum capacity of 8G
  • Download a rk3568-eflasher-OSNAME-YYYYMMDD.img.gz image file and a win32diskimager;
  • Under Windows, run win32diskimager as administrator, select your SD card and extracted EFlasher image file, and click on “Write” to write image file on the SD card; or under Linux, you use the dd command to write the rk3568-eflasher-OSNAME-YYYYMMDD.img file to the SD card.
  • Eject your SD card and insert it to NanoPi-R5S’s microSD card slot.
  • Turn on NanoPi-R5S, it will boot from the SD card and automatically run EFlasher to install the OS to the board’s eMMC. You connect your board to an HDMI monitor or observer the board’s LEDs to watch its installation progress
Progress SYS LED(Red) LAN LED(Green) WAN LED(Green)
Power On Solid On Off Off
System Boot Slow Flashing Off Off
Installation in Progress Fast Flashing Off Off
Installation Done Slow Flashing Solid On Solid On
  • After installation is done, power off the board, eject the SD card from NanoPi-R5S, power on the board again, NanoPi-R5S will load the OS from its eMMC
4.5.2.2.2 Install Flash Image File to eMMC
  • Auto Install (Default Behavior)

1) Download an “eflasher” firmware from network drive, extract it and install it to a TF card ;
2) Eject and insert the TF card to your PC, after a “FriendlyARM” device shows up(Under Linux, it is a “FriendlyARM” directory), copy an .img or .gz file to the TF card.
3) Open the eflasher.conf file on the TF card, set “autoStart=” to the name of your image file, such as:

autoStart=openwrt-rockchip-armv8_nanopi-ext4-sysupgrade.img.gz

Anyone of the files that contain “-sd-” will work. Here is a list:

rk3568-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz
rk3568-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz
rk3568-sd-friendlywrt-22.03-YYYYMMDD.img.gz
rk3568-sd-friendlywrt-22.03-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz
rk3568-sd-friendlycore-focal-5.10-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz

4) Eject the TF card, insert the TF card to NanoPi-R5S, power it on it will automatically install your firmware. You can watch the installation progress by observing the LEDs’ status.

  • Disable Auto Installation

If you want to disable auto installation, please open the eflasher.conf file, set “autoStart=” to empty:

autoStart=

In this case, after the system boots, it will stay at the step where you are expected to select an image file. You need to connect an HDMI monitor and a USB mouse to your board and install a firmware on its UI;

4.5.2.3 Option 3: Install OS via USB
4.5.2.3.1 Step 1: Install USB Driver and Tools/Utilities

Download a driver file DriverAssitant_v5.1.1.zip under the “tools” directory from network drive, extract and install it.
Under the same directory, download a utility RKDevTool_Release_v2.84.zip and extract it.

4.5.2.3.2 Step 2: Connect NanoPi-R5S to PC and Enter Installation Mode

1) Disconnect the connected USB cable and the power cord from NanoPi-R5S, eject the TF card;
2) Press and hold the “Mask” key, power on the board. After the status LED has been on for at least 3 seconds, release the Mask key.
3) Use a USB A-to-A cable, connect NanoPi-R5S to a PC as follows. Note: please pay attention to the USB port the USB cable is connected to in the screenshot.
Nanopir5s-usba-to-usba2.jpg

4.5.2.3.3 Step 3: Install image to eMMC

A firmware in general is packaged in either of the two options: the first is an whole image (ie, update.img) which is often offered by third party developers, the second is that an image is packaged and placed in multiple partition images. FriendlyElec offers an image in the latter option.

  • Option 1: Install whole image (ie, update.img)

On a PC which has the extracted RKDevTool_Release_v2.84 utility, go to the RKDevTool_Release_v2.84 directory, run the RKDevTool.exe file. If everything works, you will see a “Found a new Maskrom device” message on the utility;
Go to “Upgrade Firmware(升级固件)”, click on “Firmware(固件)”, select your wanted image file, and click on “Upgrade(升级)” to install. After installation is done, your board will reboot automatically and load the system from eMMC;

  • Option 2: Install OS that is packaged & placed in multiple partition images

Go to network drive to download your needed package and extract it.

Image File
rk3568-usb-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Based on OpenWrt 21.02.3
Kernel version 5.10.y
rk3568-usb-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Pre-installed Docker
Based on OpenWrt 21.02.3
Kernel version 5.10.y
rk3568-usb-debian-buster-desktop-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 10(buster) Desktop
Uses LXDE as default desktop
Pre-installed mpv, smplayer and chromium brower
Supports hardware acceleration
Kernel version 5.10.y
rk3568-usb-android12-YYYYMMDD.img.zip Android12
rk3568-usb-friendlycore-lite-focal-5.10-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyCore
Minimal system
Based on Ubuntu core 20.04
kernel version 5.10.y

After it is extracted, you will see some utilities and a configuration file under the directory. double click on RKDevTool.exe, you will see a “Found a new Maskrom device” message on the utility. Click on the “Execute”, wait a moment and it will be installed. After installation is done your system will automatically reboot and load the system from eMMC.

4.6 The Boot order between eMMC and SD card

By default, the system will be booted from the TF card first, but this is not the case under all conditions. This section will explain all situations in detail;

Refer to rockchip official document [1], there are two types of loader program:
1) U-Boot TPL/SPL (i.e. upsream U-Boot, also called mainline U-Boot)
2) Rockchip MiniLoader

Things to note:
1) FriendlyELEC's image uses Rockchip MiniLoader
2) The third-party image usually uses U-Boot TPL/SPL

The following situations will always start from eMMC:
If the system in the eMMC, or the system in the TF card uses the first Loader type U-Boot TPL/SPL, it will always boot from the eMMC;
If you want to boot from the TF card, there are the following methods:
Method 1: Clear the Loader on the eMMC, the clearing method is as follows, after starting from the eMMC, enter the following command on the command line to clear the Loader on the eMMC:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mmcblk2 bs=8M count=1

Method 2: Insert the TF card, Press Maskrom Key (or short-circuit the Maskrom contacts) and then power on (need to keep the short-circuit for about 3 seconds), it will start from the TF card

The summary is as follows:

eMMC current system TF card current system Boot priority
No system Any image TF card
FriendlyELEC's image FriendlyELEC's image TF card
FriendlyELEC's image Image with Mainline U-boot eMMC
Image with Mainline U-boot FriendlyELEC's image eMMC
Image with Mainline U-boot Image with Mainline U-boot eMMC

5 Work with FriendlyWrt

5.1 Introduction to FriendlyWrt

FriendlyWrt is a customized system made by FriendlyElec based on an OpenWrt distribution. It is open source and well suitable for developing IoT applications, NAS applications etc.

5.2 First boot

For the first boot, the system needs to do the following initialization work:
1)Extended root file system
2)Initial setup(will execute /root/setup.sh)
So you need to wait for a while (about 2~3 minutes) to boot up for the first time, and then set FriendlyWrt, you can enter the ttyd terminal on the openwrt webpage, when the prompt is displayed as root@FriendlyWrt, it means the system has been initialized.

root@FriendlyWrt

5.3 Account & Password

The default password is password (empty password in some versions). Please set or change a safer password for web login and ssh login. It is recommended to complete this setting before connecting NanoPi-R5S to the Internet.

5.4 Login FriendlyWrt

Connect the PC to the LAN port of NanoPi-R5S. If your PC without a built-in ethernet port, connect the LAN port of the wireless AP to the LAN port of NanoPi-R5S, and then connect your PC to the wireless AP via WiFi , Enter the following URL on your PC's browser to access the admin page:

The above is the LAN port address of NanoPi-R5S. The IP address of the WAN port will be dynamically obtained from your main router through DHCP.

5.5 Recommended security settings

The following settings are highly recommended to complete before connecting NanoPi-R5S to the Internet。

  • Set a secure password
  • Only allow access to ssh from lan, change the port
  • Only allow local devices to access luci

Edit /etc/config/uhttpd,Change the original 0.0.0.0 and [::] addresses to the local lan address, for example:

	# HTTP listen addresses, multiple allowed
	list listen_http	192.168.2.1:80
	list listen_http	[fd00:ab:cd::1]:80
 
	# HTTPS listen addresses, multiple allowed
	list listen_https	192.168.2.1:443
	list listen_https	[fd00:ab:cd::1]:443

Restart the service:

/etc/init.d/uhttpd restart
  • Check the firewall settings

Set up as you wish.

5.6 Safe shutdown operation

Enter the "Services" -> "Terminal", enter the "poweroff" command and hit enter, wait until the led light is off, and then unplug the power supply.

5.7 Soft Factory Reset

Enter "System"->"Backup/Flash firmware",Click “Perform reset“ Button, Your device's settings will be reset to defaults like when FriendlyWrt was first installed.
You can also do this in the terminal:

firstboot && reboot

5.8 Install Software Packages

5.8.1 Update Package List

Before install software packages update the package list:

$ opkg update

5.8.2 List Available Packages

$ opkg list

5.8.3 List Installed Packages

$ opkg list-installed

5.8.4 Install Packages

$ opkg install <package names>

5.8.5 Remove Packages

$ opkg remove <package names>

5.9 Disable IPv6

. /root/setup.sh
disable_ipv6
reboot

5.10 Some common issues of FriendlyWrt

  • Unable to dial up
    • Go to "Network" -> "Firewall" and set "Inbound Data", "Outbound Data" and "Forwarding" in "WAN Zone" to "Accept";
    • If you still cannot access the Internet, you can try to turn off IPV6;
  • Dial-up successful, but no outgoing traffic
    • Go to "Services" -> "Terminal" and type "fw4 reload" to try to reload the firewall settings again;
  • Unable to power on
    • Try to replace the power adapter and cable. It is recommended to use a power supply with specifications above 5V/2A;
    • Note that some fast chargers with Type-C interface will have a delay, it may take a few seconds to start providing power;
  • When doing secondary routing, the computer cannot connect to the Internet
    • If your main network is IPv4, and NanoPi-R5S works in IPv6, the computer may not be able to connect to the Internet. It is recommended to turn off IPv6 (the method is described later in this WiKi), or switch the main route to IPv6;
  • If you have questions or have better suggestions, please send an email to techsupport@friendlyarm.com;

5.11 Use USB2LCD to view IP and temperature

Plug the USB2LCD module to the USB interface ofNanoPi-R5S and power on, the IP address and CPU temperature will be displayed on the LCD:
Xxx-usb2lcd-01.png

5.12 Work with USB WiFi Device

5.12.1 Check USB WiFi Device with Command Line Utility

(1) Click on "services>ttyd" to start the command line utility

(2) Make sure no USB devices are connected to your board and run the following command to check if any USB devices are connected or not

lsusb

(3) Connect a USB WiFi device to the board and run the command again

lsusb

You will see a new device is detected. In our test the device's ID was 0BDA:C811

(4) Type your device's ID (in our case it was "0BDA:C811" or "VID_0BDA&PID_C811") in a search engine and you may find a device that matches the ID. In our case the device we got was Realtek 8811CU.

5.12.2 Configure a USB WiFi Device as AP

(1) Connect a USB WiFi device to the NanoPi-R5S. We recommend you to use the following devices:
R2swrt+usbwifi-20210831.jpg
Note: devices that match these VID&PIDs would most likely work.
(2) Click on "System>Reboot" and reboot your NanoPi-R5S

(3) Click on "Network>Wireless" to enter the WiFi configuration page

(4) Click on "Edit" to edit the configuration

(5) On the "Interface Configuration" page you can set the WiFi mode and SSID, and then go to "Wireless Security" to change the password. By default the password is "password". After you make your changes click on "Save" to save

(6) After you change the settings you can use a smartphone or PC to search for WiFi

5.12.3 Common USB WiFi issues

1) It is recommended to plug in the usb wifi in the off state, then power it on, FriendlyWrt will automatically generate the configuration file /etc/config/wireless, if not, see if there is wlan0 by ifconfig -a, if there is no wlan0, usually there is no driver.
2) If ifconfig -a sees wlan0, but the hotspot is not working properly, try changing the channel and country code, an inappropriate country code can also cause the WiFi to not work.
3) Some USB WiFis (e.g. MTK MT7662) work in CD-ROM mode by default and need to be switched by usb_modeswitch, you can try to add usb_modeswitch configuration to the following directory: /etc/usb_modeswitch.d.

5.12.4 Change the default WiFi hotspot configuration

FriendlyWrt sets the country, hotspot name and other parameters for USB WiFi by default, with the aim of being as plug-and-play as possible, but this does not guarantee that all modules will be compatible with this setting, you can change these behaviors by modifying the following file:

/lib/wifi/mac80211.sh

5.13 Work with Docker Applications

5.13.1 Work with Docker: Install JellyFin

mkdir -p /jellyfin/config
mkdir -p /jellyfin/videos
docker run --restart=always -d -p 8096:8096 -v /jellyfin/config:/config -v /jellyfin/videos:/videos jellyfin/jellyfin:10.1.0-arm64 -name myjellyfin

After installation, visit port 8096 and here is what you would find:
FriendlyWrt+JerryFin

5.13.2 Work with Docker: Install Personal Nextcloud

mkdir /nextcloud -p
docker run -d -p 8888:80  --name nextcloud  -v /nextcloud/:/var/www/html/ --restart=always --privileged=true  arm64v8/nextcloud

After installtion, visit port 8888.

5.13.3 Expand Docker Storage

  • Stop docker service first:
/etc/init.d/dockerd stop
  • Rename the original /opt directory, create an empty /opt directory:
mv /opt /opt-old && mkdir /opt
  • Format your drive as ext4, and mount it to the /opt directory:

Friendlywrt mount nvme opt-en.jpg

  • Enter the command "mount | grep /opt" to check the mount status:
root@FriendlyWrt:~# mount | grep /opt
/dev/nvme0n1p1 on /opt type ext4 (rw,relatime)
root@FriendlyWrt:~#
  • Copy the files from the original /opt directory to the new /opt directory:
cp -af /opt-old/* /opt/ && rm -rf /opt-old
  • Reboot the device
reboot
  • After reboot, go to the "Docker" -> "Overview" page, check the information in the "Docker Root Dir" line, you can see that the Docker space has been expanded:

Friendlywrt docker info-en.jpg

5.13.4 Docker FAQ and solutions

5.13.4.1 Unable to access the network services provided by the Docker container

Solution:

  • Go to the "Firewall" settings and set "Forwarding" to "Accept";
  • Turn off "Software Offload";

5.14 Mount smbfs

mount -t cifs //192.168.1.10/shared /movie -o username=xxx,password=yyy,file_mode=0644

5.15 Use sdk to compile the package

5.15.1 Install the compilation environment

Download and run the following script on 64-bit Ubuntu (version 18.04+): How to setup the Compiling Environment on Ubuntu bionic

5.15.2 Download and decompress sdk from the network disk

The sdk is located in the toolchain directory of the network disk:

tar xvf openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64.tar.xz
# If the path is too long, it will cause some package compilation errors, so change the directory name here
mv openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64 sdk
cd sdk
./scripts/feeds update -a
./scripts/feeds install -a

5.15.3 Compile the package

download the source code of the example (a total of 3 examples are example1, example2, example3), and copy to the package directory:

git clone https://github.com/mwarning/openwrt-examples.git
cp -rf openwrt-examples/example* package/
rm -rf openwrt-examples/

Then enter the configuration menu through the following command:

make menuconfig

In the menu, select the following packages we want to compile (actually selected by default):

"Utilities" => "example1"
"Utilities" => "example3"
"Network" => "VPN" => "example2"

execute the following commands to compile the three software packages:

make package/example1/compile V=99
make package/example2/compile V=99
make package/example3/compile V=99

After the compilation is successful, you can find the ipk file in the bin directory, as shown below:

$ find ./bin -name example*.ipk
./bin/packages/aarch64_generic/base/example3_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
./bin/packages/aarch64_generic/base/example1_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
./bin/packages/aarch64_generic/base/example2_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk

5.15.4 Install the ipk to NanoPi

You can use the scp command to upload the ipk file to NanoPi:

cd ./bin/packages/aarch64_generic/base/
scp example*.ipk root@192.168.2.1:/root/

Then use the opkg command to install them:

cd /root/
opkg install example3_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example1_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example2_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk

6 Work with FriendlyCore

6.1 FriendlyCore User Account

  • Non-root User:
   User Name: pi
   Password: pi
  • Root:
   User Name: root
   Password: fa

6.2 Update Software Packages

$ sudo apt-get update

6.3 Setup Network Configurations

6.3.1 Set static IP address

By default "eth0" is assigned an IP address obtained via dhcp. If you want to change the setting you need to change the following file:

vi /etc/network/interfaces.d/eth0

For example if you want to assign a static IP to it you can run the following commands:

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
    address 192.168.1.231
    netmask 255.255.255.0
    gateway 192.168.1.1

The other two ethernet ports are set up with static IP addresses, as follows:
eth1: 192.168.2.1
eth2: 192.168.3.1 (Note: if there are three network ports)

6.3.2 Set a DNS

You also need to modify the following file to add the DNS configuration:

vi /etc/systemd/resolved.conf

For example, set to 192.168.1.1:

[Resolve]
DNS=192.168.1.1

Restart the systemd-resolved service with the following command:

sudo systemctl restart systemd-resolved.service
sudo systemctl enable systemd-resolved.service

6.3.3 Set up to use another network interface

To change the setting of "eth1" you can add a new file similar to eth0's configuration file under the /etc/network/interfaces.d/ directory.

6.4 Install the kernel-header package

sudo dpkg -i /opt/linux-headers-*.deb

6.5 Config status LEDs

Put the following into the autorun script to associate the status leds with the ethernet interface, and you can configure it to behave in other ways by referring to these content:

echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/trigger
echo eth0 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/link
 
echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/lan1_led/trigger
echo eth1 > /sys/class/leds/lan1_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/lan1_led/link
 
echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/lan2_led/trigger
echo eth2 > /sys/class/leds/lan2_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/lan2_led/link

7 Buildroot Linux

Buildroot is a simple, efficient and easy-to-use tool to generate embedded Linux systems through cross-compilation. It contains a boot-loader, kernel, rootfs, various libraries and utilities(e.g. qt, gstreamer, busybox etc).

FriendlyELEC's Buildroot is based on Rockchip's version which is made with linux-sdk and maintained with git. FriendlyELEC's version is synced with Rockchip's version;


For a more detailed description of the Buildroot system, please refer to: Buildroot

8 How to Compile

8.1 Build Openwrt/Friendlywrt

8.1.1 Download Code

Two versions are available, please choose as required:

8.1.1.1 FriendlyWrt 21.02.3
mkdir friendlywrt21-rk3568
cd friendlywrt21-rk3568
git clone https://github.com/friendlyarm/repo --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u https://github.com/friendlyarm/friendlywrt_manifests -b master-v21.02 \
        -m rk3568.xml --repo-url=https://github.com/friendlyarm/repo  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle
8.1.1.2 FriendlyWrt 22.03.0-rc3
mkdir friendlywrt22-rk3568
cd friendlywrt22-rk3568
git clone https://github.com/friendlyarm/repo --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u https://github.com/friendlyarm/friendlywrt_manifests -b master-v22.03 \
        -m rk3568.xml --repo-url=https://github.com/friendlyarm/repo  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle

8.1.2 First compilation step

./build.sh rk3568.mk  # or rk3568-docker.mk

All the components (including u-boot, kernel, and friendlywrt) are compiled and the sd card image will be generated, then execute the following command to generate the image file for installing the system into the emmc:

./build.sh emmc-img

After making changes to the project, the sd card image needs to be repackaged by running the following command:

./build.sh sd-img

8.1.3 Secondary compilation steps

cd friendlywrt
make menuconfig
rm -rf ./tmp
make -j${nproc}
cd ../
./build.sh sd-img
./build.sh emmc-img

8.2 Build u-boot only

./build.sh uboot

8.3 Build kernel only

./build.sh kernel

8.4 Build friendlywrt only

./build.sh friendlywrt

Or go to the friendlywrt directory and follow the standard openwrt commands. If you get an error with the above command, try using the following command to compile in a single thread:

cd friendlywrt
make -j1 V=s

9 Make Your Own OS Image

10 Connect NVME SSD High Speed Hard Disk

10.1 Detection of SSD

root@FriendlyELEC:~# cat /proc/partitions 
major minor  #blocks  name
   1        0       4096 ram0
 259        0  125034840 nvme0n1

If there is a nvme0n1 device node it means an SSD is recognized.

10.2 Partition of SSD

To mount an SSD under Linux we re-partition it as one section by running the following command:

(echo g; echo n; echo p; echo 1; echo ""; echo ""; echo w; echo q) | fdisk /dev/nvme0n1

If you want to re-partition it to multiple sections you can run "fdisk /dev/nvme0n1". For more detail about this command refer to the fdisk's manual.

10.3 Format Section to EXT4

After an SSD is successfully partitioned you can check its sections by running "cat /proc/partitions". The /dev/nvme0n1p1 section is used to store data:

root@FriendlyELEC:~# cat /proc/partitions
major minor  #blocks  name
 
   1        0       4096 ram0
 259        0  125034840 nvme0n1
 259        2  125033816 nvme0n1p1


The following command formats a section to ext4:

mkfs.ext4 /dev/nvme0n1p1

10.4 Auto Mount SSD on System Startup

Before we mount an SSD's section you need to know its Block ID. You can check it by running "blkid":

blkid /dev/nvme0n1p1
/dev/nvme0n1p1: UUID="d15c4bbf-a6c3-486f-8f81-35a8dbd46057" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="887628f0-01"

Add a "Block ID" to "/etc/fstab" and here is what it looks like

UUID=<Block ID> /media/nvme ext4 defaults 0 0

You need to replace <Block ID> with the UUID obtained by running "blkid". To mount the SSD in our example we made the "/etc/fstab" file as follows:

UUID=d15c4bbf-a6c3-486f-8f81-35a8dbd46057 /media/nvme ext4 defaults 0 0

We want to mount an SSD to "/media/nvme" but this directory doesn't exist. Therefore we create it and change its access right by running the following commands:

mkdir -p /media/nvme
chmod 777 /media/nvme

Run "mount" to check if the SSD is mounted successfully:

mount /media/nvme

You can reboot your board to check if your SSD will be automatically mounted:

reboot

11 Link to Rockchip Resources

12 Schematic, PCB CAD File

13 Update Logs

13.1 2022-08-03

13.1.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgrade FriendlyWrt to the latest version 22.03-rc6

13.2 2022-07-27

13.2.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Add NAS menu category
  • Add wg driver module
  • Tweak configuration, docker version and non-docker version have exactly the same features, the difference is only docker

13.3 2022-07-04

13.3.1 FriendlyWrt & FriendlyCore:

  • Improved pci-e stability

13.3.2 Debian 10(buster) Desktop (New)

  • Uses LXDE as default desktop
  • Pre-installed mpv, smplayer and chromium brower
  • Supports hardware acceleration

13.4 2022-06-22

13.4.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgrade kernel to 5.10.110

13.5 2022-06-21

13.5.1 FriendlyWrt:

13.5.1.1 eMMC Tools
  • Add support for burning firmware packaged in rockchip firmware format
  • Add an eMMC erase action when burning firmware to enhance compatibility

13.6 2022-06-15

13.6.1 FriendlyCore:

  • eth1, eth2 ports initialized with static IPs 192.168.2.1, 192.168.3.1
  • Added interrupt settings for NICs

13.7 2022-06-14

13.7.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Optimised network performance, fixed poor tx performance in previous version of software
  • Improved package compatibility
  • Add support for "Restore factory settings"
  • eMMC Tools adds checksum for gz format firmware files
  • FriendlyWrt official stable version 21.02.3 is available, version 22.03.0 is still available
  • Some other detailed adjustments: Set time zone to Shanghai by default, remove lcd2usb, improve security settings, tune sysctl parameters, fix docker firewall settings, etc.

13.8 2022-05-16

Initial Release