NanoPi NEO2

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1 Introduction

  • The NanoPi NEO2 is a newly released super tiny ARM board by FriendlyElec. It uses Allwinner’s 64-bit H5 quad-core SoC (ARM Cortex-A53). It has internal hexa-core Mail450 GPU, 512M DDR3 RAM. A UbuntuCore and Armbian image files are ready for it.
  • The NanoPi NEO2 inherits NEO's form factor and has compatible interfaces and ports with NEO. In addition in such a small dimension it has Gbps Ethernet and one USB host port. These features make it especially suitable for applications that require high data throughput , speedy data transmission and high performance. Hobbyists and makers will just love it.

2 Hardware Spec

  • CPU: Allwinner H5, Quad-core 64-bit high-performance Cortex A53
  • DDR3 RAM: 512MB
  • Connectivity: 10/100/1000M Ethernet, RTL8211E-VB-CG chip
  • USB Host: USB Type A x 1 and USB pin header x 2
  • MicroSD Slot: MicroSD x 1 for system boot and storage
  • LED: Power LED x 1, System LED x 1
  • GPIO1: 2.54mm pitch 24 pin-header, compatible with Raspberry Pi's GPIO pin1 - pin 24. It includes UART, SPI, I2C, IO etc
  • GPIO2: 2.54mm pitch 12 pin-header. It includes USB, IR receiver, I2S, IO etc
  • Serial Debug Port: 2.54mm pitch 4pin-header
  • Audio In/Out: 2.54mm pitch 4 pin-header
  • MicroUSB: Power input(5V/2A) and OTG
  • PCB Dimension: 40 x 40mm
  • Working Temperature: -20℃ to 70℃
  • Weight: 13g(WITHOUT Pin-headers)
  • OS/Software: u-boot,Ubuntu Core

2.1 UbuntuCore 16.04

  • 64-bit system
  • mainline kernel: Linux-4.14
  • rpi-monitor: check system status and information
  • npi-config: system configuration utility for setting passwords, language, timezone, hostname, SSH and auto-login,and enabling/disabling i2c, spi, serial and PWM. When enabling PWM it will prompt that Serial debug port will be disabled.
  • software utility: wiringNP to access GPIO pins
  • software utility: RPi.GPIO_NP to access GPIO pins
  • networkmanager: manage network
  • system log output from serial port
  • supports USB WiFi module: refer to #Connect USB WiFi to NEO
  • supports audio recording and playing with 3.5mm audio jack
  • supports I2C 0/1
  • fixed MAC address

2.2 Ubuntu OLED

  • mainline kernel: Linux-4.14
  • supports FriendlyElec's OLED module

2.3 Debian

  • welcome window with basic system information and status

2.4 Debian for NAS Dock

  • mainline kernel: Linux-4.14
  • supports FriendlyElec's NAS Dock
  • optimized OpenMediaVault configuration options
  • allocated swap section


3 Diagram, Layout and Dimension

3.1 Layout

NanoPi NEO2 Layout
  • GPIO Pin Description
Pin# Name Linux gpio Pin# Name Linux gpio
1 SYS_3.3V 2 VDD_5V
3 I2C0_SDA/GPIOA12 12 4 VDD_5V
5 I2C0_SCL/GPIOA11 11 6 GND
7 GPIOG11 203 8 UART1_TX/GPIOG6 198
9 GND 10 UART1_RX/GPIOG7 199
11 UART2_TX/GPIOA0 0 12 GPIOA6 6
17 SYS_3.3V 18 UART1_CTS/GPIOG9 201
23 SPI0_CLK/GPIOC2 66 24 SPI0_CS/GPIOC3 67
  • USB/Audio/IR Pin Descripton
Pin# Name Description
1 VDD_5V 5V Power Out
2 USB-DP1 USB1 DP Signal
3 USB-DM1 USB1 DM Signal
4 USB-DP2 USB2 DP Signal
5 USB-DM2 USB2 DM Signal
6 GPIOL11/IR-RX GPIOL11 or IR Receive
8 PCM0_SYNC/I2S0_LRC I2S/PCM Sample Rate Clock/Sync
9 PCM0_CLK/I2S0_BCK I2S/PCM Sample Rate Clock
10 PCM0_DOUT/I2S0_SDOUT I2S/PCM Serial Data Output
11 PCM0_DIN/I2S0_SDIN I2S/PCM Serial Data Input
12 GND 0V
  • Audio
Pin# Name Description
1 MP Microphone Positive Input
2 MN Microphone Negative Input
3 LR LINE-OUT Right Channel Output
4 LL LINE-OUT Left Channel Output
  • Debug Port(UART0)
Pin# Name
2 VDD_5V
  1. SYS_3.3V: 3.3V power output
  2. VDD_5V: 5V power input/output. The input range is 4.7V ~ 5.5V. It can take power input from the MicroUSB.
  3. All pins are 3.3V and output current is 5mA
  4. For more details refer to the document: NanoPi_NEO2_V1.1_1711-Schematic.pdf

3.2 Dimensional Diagram


For more details refer to pcb file in dxf format

4 Software Features

FriendlyCore System
  • gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu
  • it applies to 64-bit Armv8 Cortex-A, little-endian architechture. FriendlyElec uses it for its H5 based boards.
  • It can recognize a FriendlyElec's H5 based board and load its dtb file accordingly.
  • It optimizes memory settings.
  • It supports voltage regulation IC sy8106a and applies only to NanoPi K1 Plus/NanoPi NEO Core2.
  • It supports MAC generation from H5's CPU ID.
  • It supports system booting from either SD card or eMMC and can automatically load the kernel from the booting device.
  • It supports LED. You can access it via "/sys/class/leds".
  • It supports GPIO. You can access it via "/sys/class/gpio/".
  • It supports UART0/1/2/3. You can access it via "/dev/ttySX".
  • It supports I2C0. You can access it via "/dev/i2c-X".
  • It supports SPI0. You can access it via "/dev/spidevX.X".
  • It supports PWM0. You can access it via "/sys/class/pwm/". The UART0 pin is multiplexed.
  • It supports I2S0. It works together with PCM5102A codec. The I2C1 pin is multiplexed.
  • It supports Watchdog. You can access it via "/dev/watchX".
  • It can read a CPU ID. You can access it via "/sys/bus/nvmem/devices/sunxi-sid0/nvmem".
  • It supports IR Receiver. You need to connect an IR receiver to the board.
  • It supports dynamic CPU voltage regulation.
  • It supports Micro USB OTG.
  • It supports USB Host1/2/3.
  • It supports TF Card.
  • It supports 1000M Ethernet.
  • It supports H5's internal Codec and supports voice playing and recording.
  • It supports USB Camera(CAM202).
  • It supports popular USB WiFi Adapters.
  • It supports popular USB Ethernet Adapters.
  • It supports popular USB Serial Converters.
  • It supports popular USB Sound Cards.
  • It supports FriendlyElec's NanoHat PCM5102A.
File System
  • Based on UbuntuCore-16.04, it has original UbuntuCore features.
  • It has popular utilties:VIM/Nano/SSHserver and etc.
  • It has Qt-Embedded-4.8 and suitable for rapid product prototyping which needs a GUI.
  • It has a network management utility "NetworkManager" which can automatically detect and connect to a network. For more details refer to: NetworkManager
  • It has a commandline utility "npi-config" which can be used to set a user password, language, timezone, Hostname, SSH enable/disable, auto-login, hardware interface and etc. For more details refer to Npi-config
  • It uses overlayfs.
  • It expands the file system on the first system boot.
  • It supports file system auto-repair on system boot.
  • It supports 512MB's swap.
  • It supports WiringNP which functions like Arduino's API and can be used to access NanoPi boards' gpio/i2c/spi and etc. For more details refer to: WiringNP
  • It supports FriendlyElec's BakeBit which is a set of sensor modules including hardware components(such as NanoHat Hub extension board) and software (such as BakeBit). For more details refer to BakeBit .
  • It supports RPi.GPIO which can be used to access NanoPi boards' gpio with Python. For more details refer to RPi.GPIO.
FriendlyWrt OS
Cross Compiler
  • gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.02-x86_64_aarch64-linux-gnu
  • Applicable for 64-bit Armv8 Cortex-A, little-endian. It has been tested and verified with FriendlyElec's Allwinner H5 boards.
  • Same as FriendlyCore
  • Same as FriendlyCore
File System
  • Based on OpenWrt-18.06 and keeps OpenWrt's original features;
  • Based on a U-boot-2017.11 + Linux-4.14 system which is maintained by FriendlyElec
  • Optimizes system initialization on a first time system boot
  • Supports Huawei wifi 2 mini(E8372h)
  • Supports 5G USB WiFi rtl8821cu, plug and play
  • Supports Matrix-LCD2USB, by default it shows an IP address
  • Utilizes overlayfs, for more details refer to How to use overlayfs on Linux
  • Supports auto-extension of file system on a first time system boot
  • Supports one-touch script to compile U-boot/Linux/FriendlyWrt rootfs and generate an image file, for more details refer to How to Build FriendlyWrt
  • Supports flashing an image to eMMC with eflasher, for more details refer to EFlasher

5 Get Started

5.1 Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi NEO2 get the following items ready

  • NanoPi NEO2
  • microSD Card/TFCard: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • microUSB power. A 5V/2A power is a must
  • A host computer running Ubuntu 18.04 64 bit system

5.2 TF Cards We Tested

To make your device boot and run fast we highly recommend you use a Class10 8GB SDHC TF card or a better one. The following cards are what we used in all our test cases presented here:

  • Sandisk MicroSDHC V30 32GB Extreme Pro (Developer choice)


  • SanDisk 32GB High Endurance Video MicroSDHC Card with Adapter for Dash Cam and Home Monitoring Systems (High reliability)


  • SanDisk TF 8G Class10 Micro/SD High Speed TF card:

SanDisk microSD 8G

  • SanDisk TF128G MicroSDXC TF 128G Class10 48MB/S:

SanDisk microSD 128G

  • 川宇 8G C10 High Speed class10 micro SD card:

chuanyu microSD 8G

5.3 Install OS

5.3.1 Get Image File

Get the following files from download link to download image files (under the officail-ROMs directory) and the flashing utility(under the tools directory):

Image Files: Base on UbuntuCore, kernel:Linux-3.10 Base on UbuntuCore, kernel:Linux-4.14 Base on OpenWrt, kernel:Linux-4.14
Flash Utility:
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility. Under Linux users can use "dd"

5.3.2 Linux Flash to TF
  • FriendlyCore / Debian / Ubuntu / OpenWrt / DietPi are all based on a same Linux distribution and their installation methods are the same.
  • Extract the Linux image and win32diskimager.rar files. Insert a TF card(at least 8G) into a Windows PC and run the win32diskimager utility as administrator. On the utility's main window select your TF card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the TF card.

Take "nanopi-neo2_sd_friendlycore-xenial_4.14_arm64_YYYYMMDD.img" as an example here is the installation window. Other image files are installed on the similar window:

After it is installed you will see the following window:

  • Insert this card into your board's BOOT slot and power on (with a 5V/2A power source). If the PWR LED is on and the STAT LED is blinking this indicates your board has successfully booted.

6 Work with FriendlyCore

6.1 Introduction

FriendlyCore is a light Linux system without X-windows, based on ubuntu core, It uses the Qt-Embedded's GUI and is popular in industrial and enterprise applications.

Besides the regular Ubuntu Core's features FriendlyCore has the following additional features:

  • it integrates Qt4.8;
  • it integrates NetworkManager;
  • it has bluez and Bluetooth related packages;
  • it has alsa packages;
  • it has npi-config;
  • it has RPiGPIO, a Python GPIO module;
  • it has some Python/C demo in /root/ directory;
  • it enables 512M-swap partition;

6.2 System Login

  • If your board is connected to an HDMI monitor you need to use a USB mouse and keyboard.
  • If you want to do kernel development you need to use a serial communication board, ie a PSU-ONECOM board, which will

allow you to operate the board via a serial terminal.Here is a setup where we connect a board to a PC via the PSU-ONECOM and you can power on your board from either the PSU-ONECOM or its MicroUSB: PSU-ONECOM-NEO2.jpg
You can use a USB to Serial conversion board too.
Make sure you use a 5V/2A power to power your board from its MicroUSB port:

  • FriendlyCore User Accounts:

Non-root User:

   User Name: pi
   Password: pi


   User Name: root
   Password: fa

The system is automatically logged in as "pi". You can do "sudo npi-config" to disable auto login.

  • Update packages
$ sudo apt-get update

6.3 Configure System with npi-config

The npi-config is a commandline utility which can be used to initialize system configurations such as user password, system language, time zone, Hostname, SSH switch , Auto login and etc. Type the following command to run this utility.

$ sudo npi-config

Here is how npi-config's GUI looks like:

6.4 Develop Qt Application

Please refer to: How to Build and Install Qt Application for FriendlyELEC Boards

6.5 Setup Program to AutoRun

You can setup a program to autorun on system boot with npi-config:

sudo npi-config

Go to Boot Options -> Autologin -> Qt/Embedded, select Enable and reboot.

6.6 Extend TF Card's Section

When FriendlyCore is loaded the TF card's section will be automatically extended.You can check the section's size by running the following command:

$ df -h

6.7 WiFi

For either an SD WiFi or a USB WiFi you can connect it to your board in the same way. The APXX series WiFi chips are SD WiFi chips. By default FriendlyElec's system supports most popular USB WiFi modules. Here is a list of the USB WiFi modules we tested:

Index Model
1 RTL8188CUS/8188EU 802.11n WLAN Adapter
2 RT2070 Wireless Adapter
3 RT2870/RT3070 Wireless Adapter
4 RTL8192CU Wireless Adapter
5 mi WiFi mt7601
6 5G USB WiFi RTL8821CU
7 5G USB WiFi RTL8812AU

You can use the NetworkManager utility to manage network. You can run "nmcli" in the commandline utility to start it. Here are the commands to start a WiFi connection:

  • Change to root
$ su root
  • Check device list
$ nmcli dev

Note: if the status of a device is "unmanaged" it means that device cannot be accessed by NetworkManager. To make it accessed you need to clear the settings under "/etc/network/interfaces" and reboot your system.

  • Start WiFi
$ nmcli r wifi on
  • Scan Surrounding WiFi Sources
$ nmcli dev wifi
  • Connect to a WiFi Source
$ nmcli dev wifi connect "SSID" password "PASSWORD" ifname wlan0

The "SSID" and "PASSWORD" need to be replaced with your actual SSID and password.If you have multiple WiFi devices you need to specify the one you want to connect to a WiFi source with iface
If a connection succeeds it will be automatically setup on next system reboot.

For more details about NetworkManager refer to this link: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

If your USB WiFi module doesn't work most likely your system doesn't have its driver. For a Debian system you can get a driver from Debian-WiFi and install it on your system. For a Ubuntu system you can install a driver by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install linux-firmware

In general all WiFi drivers are located at the "/lib/firmware" directory.

6.8 Ethernet Connection

If a board is connected to a network via Ethernet before it is powered on it will automatically obtain an IP with DHCP activated after it is powered up. If you want to set up a static IP refer to: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings

6.9 WiringPi and Python Wrapper

6.10 Custom welcome message

The welcome message is printed from the script in this directory:


For example, to change the FriendlyELEC LOGO, you can change the file /etc/update-motd.d/10-header. For example, to change the LOGO to HELLO, you can change the following line:

TERM=linux toilet -f standard -F metal $BOARD_VENDOR


TERM=linux toilet -f standard -F metal HELLO

6.11 Modify timezone

For exampe, change to Shanghai timezone:

sudo rm /etc/localtime
sudo ln -ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime

6.12 Set Audio Device

If your system has multiple audio devices such as HDMI-Audio, 3.5mm audio jack and I2S-Codec you can set system's default audio device by running the following commands.

  • After your board is booted run the following commands to install alsa packages:
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install libasound2
$ apt-get install alsa-base
$ apt-get install alsa-utils
  • After installation is done you can list all the audio devices by running the following command. Here is a similar list you may see after you run the command:
$ aplay -l
card 0: HDMI
card 1: 3.5mm codec
card 2: I2S codec

"card 0" is HDMI-Audio, "card 1" is 3.5mm audio jack and "card 2" is I2S-Codec. You can set default audio device to HDMI-Audio by changing the "/etc/asound.conf" file as follows:

pcm.!default {
    type hw
    card 0
    device 0
ctl.!default {
    type hw
    card 0

If you change "card 0" to "card 1" the 3.5mm audio jack will be set to the default device.
Copy a .wav file to your board and test it by running the following command:

$ aplay /root/Music/test.wav

You will hear sounds from system's default audio device.
If you are using H3/H5/H2+ series board with mainline kernel, the easier way is using npi-config

6.13 Connect to USB Camera(FA-CAM202)

The FA-CAM202 is a 200M USB camera. You can refer to <Connect DVP Camera (CAM500B) to Board> on how to connect a USB camera to a board.
You need to change the script and make sure it uses a correct /dev/videoX node. You can check your FA-CAM202's node by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install v4l-utils
$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video1 -D
Driver Info (not using libv4l2):
        Driver name   : uvcvideo
        Card type     : HC 3358+2100: HC 3358+2100
        Bus info      : usb-1c1b000.usb-1

Information above indicates that /dev/video1 is the device node of the FA-CAM 202.

6.14 Check CPU's Working Temperature

You can get CPU's working temperature by running the following command:

$ cpu_freq
CPU0 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU1 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU2 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000
CPU3 online=1 temp=26581 governor=ondemand cur_freq=480000

This message means there are currently four CPUs working. All of their working temperature is 26.5 degree in Celsius and each one's clock is 480MHz.

6.15 Test Watchdog

You can test watchdog by running the following commands:

$ cd /root/demo/watchdog/
$ gcc watchdog_demo.c -o watchdog_demo
$ ./watchdog_demo /dev/watchdog0 10
Set timeout: 10 seconds
Get timeout: 10 seconds
System will reboot in 10 second

System will reboot in 10 seconds.

6.16 Test Infrared Receiver

Note: Please Check your board if IR receiver exist.
By default the infrared function is disabled you can enable it by using the npi-config utility:

$ npi-config
    6 Advanced Options     Configure advanced settings
        A8 IR              Enable/Disable IR
            ir Enable/Disable ir[enabled]

Reboot your system and test its infrared function by running the following commands:

$ apt-get install ir-keytable
$ echo "+rc-5 +nec +rc-6 +jvc +sony +rc-5-sz +sanyo +sharp +mce_kbd +xmp" > /sys/class/rc/rc0/protocols   # Enable infrared
$ ir-keytable -t
Testing events. Please, press CTRL-C to abort.

"ir-keytable -t" is used to check whether the receiver receives infrared signals. You can use a remote control to send infrared signals to the receiver. If it works you will see similar messages as follows:

1522404275.767215: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e43
1522404275.767215: event type EV_SYN(0x00).
1522404278.911267: event type EV_MSC(0x04): scancode = 0xe0e42
1522404278.911267: event type EV_SYN(0x00).

6.17 Read CHIP ID

As for Allwinner H2+/H3/H5/ SoCs each of these CPUs has an internal 16-btye CHIP ID which can be read by running the following commands in the Linux-4.14 kernel:

$ apt-get install bsdmainutils
$ hexdump /sys/bus/nvmem/devices/sunxi-sid0/nvmem 
0000000 8082 0447 0064 04c3 3650 ce0a 1e28 2202
0000010 0002 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000020 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000030 0000 0008 0508 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
0000040 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000

"8082 0447 0064 04c3 3650 ce0a 1e28 2202" is the 16-byte CHIP ID.

6.18 Access GPIO Pins/Wirings with WiringNP

The wiringPi library was initially developed by Gordon Henderson in C. It contains libraries to access GPIO, I2C, SPI, UART, PWM and etc. The wiringPi library contains various libraries, header files and a commandline utility:gpio. The gpio utility can be used to read and write GPIO pins.
FriendlyElec integrated this utility in FriendlyCore system allowing users to easily access GPIO pins. For more details refer to WiringNP WiringNP

6.19 Run Qt Demo

Run the following command

$ sudo /opt/QtE-Demo/

Here is what you expect to observe. This is an open source Qt Demo:

6.20 How to install and use docker (for arm64 system)

6.20.1 How to Install Docker

Run the following commands:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install

6.20.2 Test Docker installation

Test that your installation works by running the simple docker image:

git clone
cd debian-jessie-arm-docker

6.21 Play & Record Audio

The NanoPi NEO2 has an audio interface (2.0mm pitch 5-pin header) whose pin description is as follows:

Pin# Name Description
1 MICIN1P Microphone Positive Input
2 MICIN1N Microphone Negative Input
3 LINEOUTR LINE-OUT Right Channel Output
4 GND Ground
5 LINEOUTL LINE-OUT Left Channel Output

Here is a hardware setup on how to connect an audio device to a NEO2:
Before begin to play or record a audio make sure your NEO2 is connected to an audio device.
Check a recognized audio device:

$ aplay -l
**** List of PLAYBACK Hardware Devices ****
card 0: Codec [H3 Audio Codec], device 0: CDC PCM Codec-0 []
  Subdevices: 1/1
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0

Both Allwinner's H5 and H3 have an internal codec which is named as [H3 Audio Codec] in mainline kernels.

Play an audio file:

$ aplay /root/Music/test.wav -D plughw:0

Record an audio file:

$ arecord -f cd -d 5 test.wav

7 Work with OpenWrt

7.1 Introduction

OpenWrt is a highly extensible GNU/Linux distribution for embedded devices.Unlike many other distributions for routers, OpenWrt is built from the ground up to be a full-featured, easily modifiable operating system for embedded devices. In practice, this means that you can have all the features you need with none of the bloat, powered by a modern Linux kernel. For more details you can refer to:OpenWrt Website.

7.2 System Login

  • Login via Serial Port

When you do kernel development you'd better get a serial communication board. After you connect your board to a serial communication board you will be able to do development work from a commandline utility.
Here is a hardware setup:
After you connect your board to a serial communication board (e.g. FriendlyElec's serial communication board) you can power the whole system from either the DC port on the serial communication board or the MicroUSB port(if there is one) on your board:

or you can use a USB to serial board and power on the whole system at the MicroUSB port with a 5V/2A power:

By default you will login as root without a password. You can use "passwd" to set a password for root.
On first boot the system will automatically extend the file system on the TF card to the max capacity:
Please wait for this to be done.

  • Login via SSH

In FriendlyElec's OpenWrt system the Ethernet(eth0) is configured as WAN.
Before power on your board make sure your board is connected to a master router's LAN with an Ethernet cable and the eth0 will be assigned an IP address by DHCP.
For example, if your eth0 is assigned an IP address you can login with SSH by running the following command:

$ ssh root@

You can login without a password.

  • Login via Web

You can login OpenWrt via a LuCI Web page.
After you go through all the steps in <Login via SSH> and get an IP address e.g. for the Ethernet connection, type this IP address in a browser's address bar and you will be able to login OpenWrt-LuCI:
By default you will login as root without a password, just click on "Login" to login.

7.3 Manage Software Packages

OpenWrt has a package management utility: opkg. You can get its details by running the following command:

$ opkg
Package Manipulation:
        update                  Update list of available packages
        upgrade <pkgs>          Upgrade packages
        install <pkgs>          Install package(s)
        configure <pkgs>        Configure unpacked package(s)
        remove <pkgs|regexp>    Remove package(s)
        flag <flag> <pkgs>      Flag package(s)
         <flag>=hold|noprune|user|ok|installed|unpacked (one per invocation)
Informational Commands:
        list                    List available packages
        list-installed          List installed packages
        list-upgradable         List installed and upgradable packages
        list-changed-conffiles  List user modified configuration files
        files <pkg>             List files belonging to <pkg>
        search <file|regexp>    List package providing <file>
        find <regexp>           List packages whose name or description matches <regexp>
        info [pkg|regexp]       Display all info for <pkg>
        status [pkg|regexp]     Display all status for <pkg>
        download <pkg>          Download <pkg> to current directory

These are just part of the manual. Here are some popular opkg commands.

  • Update Package List

Before you install a package you'd better update the package list:

$ opkg update
  • Check Available Packages
$ opkg list

At the time of writing there are 3241 packages available.

  • Check Installed Packages:
$ opkg list-installed

At the time of writing 124 packages have been installed.

  • Install/Delete Packages:
$ opkg install <pkgs>
$ opkg remove <pkgs>
  • Check Files Contained in Installed Packages:
$ opkg files <pkg>
  • Install Chinese Language Package for LuCI
$ opkg install luci-i18n-base-zh-cn
  • Check Changed Files:
$ opkg list-changed-conffiles

7.4 Check System Status

  • Check CPU Temperature & Frequency via Commandline
$ cpu_freq 
Aavailable frequency(KHz):
        480000 624000 816000 1008000
Current frequency(KHz):
        CPU0 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz
        CPU1 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz
        CPU2 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz
        CPU3 online=1 temp=26548C governor=ondemand freq=624000KHz

These messages mean that there are four CPU cores working online simultaneously. Each core's temperature is 26.5 degrees in Celsius, the scheduling policy is on-demand and the working frequency is 624MHz. You can set the frequency by running the following command:

$ cpu_freq -s 1008000
Aavailable frequency(KHz):
        480000 624000 816000 1008000
Current frequency(KHz):
        CPU0 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz
        CPU1 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz
        CPU2 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz
        CPU3 online=1 temp=36702C governor=userspace freq=1008000KHz

These messages mean four CPU cores are working online. Each core's temperature is 26.5 degrees. Each core's governor is on demand and the frequency is 480 MHz.

  • Check System Status on OpenWrt-LuCI Web Page

After open the OpenWrt-LuCI page, go to "Statistics ---> Graphs" and you will see various system statistics e.g.:
1) System Load:
2) RAM:
3) CPU Temperature:
All the statistics listed on the Statistics page are presented by the luci-app-statistics package which uses the Collectd utility to collect data and presents them with the RRDtool utility.
If you want to get more statistics you can install other collectd-mod-* packages. All collectd-mod-* packages use the same configuration file: /etc/config/luci_statistics.

7.5 Check Network->Interfaces Configurations

  • After open the OpenWrt-LuCI page, go to "Network" ---> "Interfaces" and you will see the current network's configurations:


  • All the configurations listed on the Network->Interfaces page are stored in the "/etc/config/network" file.

7.6 USB WiFi

Currently the NanoPi NEO2 Black only works with a RTL8821CU USB WiFi dongle, plug and play. After this module is connected to the board it will by default work under AP mode and the hotspot's name is "rtl8821cu-mac address" and the password is "password";

7.7 Huawei's WiFi 2 mini(E8372H-155) Module

After this module is connected to the board it will be plug and play. The hotspot's name is "HUAWEI-8DA5". You can connect a device to the internet by connecting to this hotspot.

8 More OS Support

8.1 DietPi

DietPi is a highly optimised & minimal Debian-based Linux distribution. DietPi is extremely lightweight at its core, and also extremely easy to install and use.
Setting up a single board computer (SBC) or even a computer, for both regular or server use, takes time and skill. DietPi provides an easy way to install and run favourite software you choose.
For more information, please visit this link

DietPi supports many of the NanoPi board series, you may download the image file from here:

9 Make Your Own FriendlyCore

9.1 Mainline U-boot & Linux(64 bit)

Now the NanoPi NEO2 can run a 64-bit Linux kernel with 64-bit Ubuntu Core 16.04. Here is a detailed reference on how to run mainline U-boot and Linux on H5: Mainline U-boot & Linux

9.2 Use Allwinner's BSP

9.2.1 Preparations

Visit this link download link and enter the "sources/nanopi-H5-bsp" directory and download all the source code.Use the 7-zip utility to extract it and a lichee directory and an Android directory will be generated.You can check that by running the following command:

$ ls ./
$ lichee

Or you can get it from our github:

$ git clone lichee --depth 1

Note: "lichee" is the project name named by Allwinner for its CPU's source code which contains the source code of U-boot, Linux kernel and various scripts.

9.2.2 Install Cross Compiler

Visit this site download link, enter the "toolchain" directory, download the cross compiler "gcc-linaro-arm-4.6.3.tar.xz" and "gcc-linaro-aarch64.tar.xz" and copy them to the "lichee/brandy/toochain/" directory.
"gcc-linaro-arm-4.6.3.tar.xz"is for compiling u-boot and "gcc-linaro-aarch64.tar.xz" is for compiling Linux kernel.

9.2.3 Compile lichee Source Code

Compilation of the H5's BSP source code must be done under a PC running a 64-bit Linux.The following cases were tested on Ubuntu-14.04 LTS-64bit:

$ sudo apt-get install gawk git gnupg flex bison gperf build-essential \
zip curl libc6-dev libncurses5-dev:i386 x11proto-core-dev \
libx11-dev:i386 libreadline6-dev:i386 libgl1-mesa-glx:i386 \
libgl1-mesa-dev g++-multilib mingw32 tofrodos \
python-markdown libxml2-utils xsltproc zlib1g-dev:i386

Enter the lichee directory and run the following command to compile the whole package:

$ cd lichee/fa_tools
$ ./ -b nanopi-neo2 -p linux -t all

After this compilation succeeds a u-boot, Linux kernel and kernel modules will be generated.
Note: the lichee directory contains cross-compilers we have setup. When the script runs it will automatically call these cross-compilers.

The following commands can be used to update the u-boot on an installation TF card:

$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./ -d /dev/sdx -p linux -t u-boot

Note: you need to replace "/dev/sdx" with the device name in your system.
The boot.img and kernel modules are under the "linux-3.10/output" directory. You can copy the new boot.img file to your TF card's boot partition.

9.2.4 Compile U-boot

Note:you need to compile the whole lichee directory before you can compile U-boot individually.
You can run the following commands to compile u-boot individually:

$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./ -b nanopi-neo2 -p linux -t u-boot

9.2.5 Compile Linux Kernel

Note:you need to compile the whole lichee directory before you can compile Linux kernel individually.
You can run the following commands to compile Linux kernel individually:

$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./ -b nanopi-neo2 -p linux -t kernel

The boot.img and kernel modules are under the "linux-3.10/output" directory. You can copy the new boot.img file to your TF card's boot partition.

9.2.6 Clean Source Code

$ cd lichee/fa_tools/
$ ./ -b nanopi-neo2 -p linux -t clean

10 Build Kernel Headers Package

The following commands need to be executed on the development board:

10.1 Software Version

The OS image file name: nanopi-XXX_sd_friendlycore-focal_4.14_arm64_YYYYMMDD.img

$ lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
Release:        20.04
Codename:       focal
$ cat /proc/version
Linux version 4.14.111 (root@ubuntu) (gcc version 6.3.1 20170109 (Linaro GCC 6.3-2017.02)) #192 SMP Thu Jun 10 15:47:26 CST 2021

10.2 Install the required packages

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y dpkg-dev libarchive-tools

10.3 Build Kernel Headers Package

git clone -b sunxi-4.14.y --depth 1 kernel-h5
cd kernel-h5
rm -rf .git
make distclean
touch .scmversion
make CROSS_COMPILE= ARCH=arm64 sunxi_arm64_defconfig
alias tar=bsdtar
make CROSS_COMPILE= ARCH=arm64 bindeb-pkg -j4

The following message is displayed to indicate completion:

dpkg-deb: building package 'linux-headers-4.14.111' in '../linux-headers-4.14.111_4.14.111-1_arm64.deb'.
dpkg-deb: building package 'linux-libc-dev' in '../linux-libc-dev_4.14.111-1_arm64.deb'.
dpkg-deb: building package 'linux-image-4.14.111' in '../linux-image-4.14.111_4.14.111-1_arm64.deb'.
dpkg-genchanges: warning: substitution variable ${kernel:debarch} used, but is not defined
dpkg-genchanges: info: binary-only upload (no source code included)

10.4 Installation

sudo dpkg -i ../linux-headers-4.14.111_4.14.111-1_arm64.deb

10.5 Testing

To compile the pf_ring module as an example, refer to the documentation:

git clone
cd PF_RING/kernel/

After compiling, use insmod to try to load the module:

sudo insmod ./pf_ring.ko

11 Connect External Modules to NEO2

11.1 DIY NAS Server with 1-bay NAS Dock & NEO2

The 1-bay NAS Dock is an expansion board which can be used to connect an external hard disk to a NanoPi NEO2.It uses JSM568 USB3.0 to SATA IC and communicates with a NanoPi NEO2 via USB interface. It works with a 2.5" SATA hard disk.It uses TI's DC-DC chipset to convert a 12V input to 5V. It has a power switch for users to turn on/off the device.It supports an onboard RTC battery. FriendlyElec migrated mainline Linux-4.14 kernel and Debian-Jessie with OpenMediaVault. Together with FriendlyElec's customized aluminum case you can quickly assemble a storage server. Here is a hardware setup :1-bay NAS Dock v1.2 for NanoPi NEO/NEO2
Step 4

11.2 Connect Python Programmable NanoHat OLED to NEO2

The NanoHat OLED module is a small and cute monochrome OLED module with low power consumption. It has three user buttons. We provide its driver's source code and a user friendly shell interface on which you can check system information and status.A customized aluminum case is made for it. You cannot miss this lovely utility! Here is a hardware setup:NanoHat OLED
NanoHat OLED_nanopi_NEO

11.3 Connect Python Programmable NanoHat Motor to NEO2

The NanoHat Motor module can drive four 5V PWM steering motors and four 12V DC motors or four 5V PWM steering motors and two 12V four-wire step motors.Here is a hardware setup: NanoHat Motor
NanoHat Motor_nanopi_NEO

11.4 Connect NanoHat PCM5102A to NEO2

The NanoHat PCM5102A module uses TI's DAC audio chip PCM5102A, a convenient and easy-to-use audio module for hobbyists. Here is a hardware setup:NanoHat PCM5102A
Matrix - NanoHat PCM5102A_nanopi_NEO

11.5 Connect Arduino Compatible UNO Dock to NEO2

The UNO Dock module is an Arduino board compatible with Arduino UNO and works with Arduino programs.You can use Arduino IDE to run all Arduino programs on the Dock.It also exposes the NanoPi NEO2's pins.It converts 12V power input to 5V/2A output.You can search for various code samples from Ubuntu's ecosystem and run on the Dock. These features make it a powerful platform for IOT projects and cloud related applications. Here is a hardware setup:UNO Dock for NanoPi NEO v1.0

11.6 Connect Power Dock to NEO2

The Power Dock for NanoPi NEO2 is a high efficiency power conversion module. It provides stable and reliable power source. Here is a hardware setup:Power Dock for NanoPi NEO
Power Dock for NanoPi NEO_nanopi_NEO

11.7 Connect NanoHat Proto to NEO2

The NanoHat Proto is an expansion board which exposes NEO2's various pins.It has an onboard EEPROM for data storage.Here is a hardware setup:NanoHat Proto
Matrix - NanoHat Proto_nanopi_NEO

11.8 Connect Matrix - 2'8 SPI Key TFT to NanoPi NEO2

The Matrix-2'8_SPI_Key_TFT module is a 2.8" TFT LCD with resistive touch. It uses the ST7789S IC and XPT2046 resistive touch IC. It has SPI interface and three configurable user keys.Here is its wiki page Matrix - 2'8 SPI Key TFT

12 3D Printing Files

NanoPi_NEO2_V1.0-1701 3D Printed Housing

13 Resources

13.1 Datasheet & Schematics

13.2 Internet resources

14 Hardware Change List

  • NanoPi NEO2 Version Compare & List(Hardware)
version NanoPi NEO2 V1.0 NanoPi NEO2 V1.1
TF Card Slot ① Non-Popup TF Card Slot
①Popup TF Card Slot
Audio Connector ②NanoPi NEO V1.0 1701's Audio connector is a 2.0mm 5Pin-header
②NanoPi NEO V1.1 1711's Audio connector is a 2.54mm 4Pin-header
RJ45 Gbps Ethernet ③ NanoPi NEO V1.0 1701's Ethernet port is an SMT connector ③ NanoPi NEO V1.1 1711's Ethernet port is a pin connector.
CVBS Output ④ NanoPi NEO V1.1 1711 has a CVBS output which V1.0 doesn't have
Mounting Hole ⑤ NanoPi NEO V1.1 1711 has two more mounting holes of 1.7 mm in diameter
GPIO voltage regulation ⑥ NanoPi NEO V1.1 1711 has 1.1V/1.3V GPIO voltage regulation

15 Update Log

15.1 March-14-2017

  • Released English Version

15.2 April-5-2017

  • Added sections 5.2 and 5.8

15.3 May-7-2017

  • Added sections 7: mainline support for H5
  • Added sections 8: support for external modules

15.4 May-17-2017

  • Added sections 5.9: WiringNP support for H5

15.5 May-24-2017

  • Added section 3: Software Features

15.6 June-4-2017

  • Updated section 5.3.1
  • Updated section 3: added more OS features

15.7 June-8-2017

  • Updated section 3.2: added support for RPi.GPIO_NP
  • Added section 6.10: added support for RPi.GPIO_NP

15.8 July-5-2017

  • Updated sections 5.3.2, 6.5 and 6.8
  • Added section 8.8: connect 2.8"TFT to NEO2

15.9 July-9-2017

  • Updated section 7.2

15.10 March-20-2018

  • Updated sections 4, 9 and 10
  • Added section 11