NanoPi R4SE

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Revision as of 05:35, 15 February 2023 by Tzs (Talk | contribs) (updated by API)

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1 Introduction

  • The NanoPi R4SE(as "R4SE") is an open source platform with dual-Gbps Ethernet ports designed and developed by FriendlyElec for IoT applications.
  • The NanoPi R4SE uses the RK3399 SoC. It has two Gbps Ethernet ports and 4G LPDDR4 RAM. FriendlyElec ported an OpenWrt system for it. It works with Docker CE. It is a good platform for developing IoT applications, NAS applications etc.

2 Hardware Spec

  • SoC: Rockchip RK3399
    • CPU: big.LITTLE,Dual-Core Cortex-A72(up to 2.0GHz) + Quad-Core Cortex-A53(up to 1.5GHz)
    • GPU: Mali-T864 GPU,supports OpenGL ES1.1/2.0/3.0/3.1, OpenCL, DX11, and AFBC
    • VPU: 4K VP9 and 4K 10bits H265/H264 60fps decoding, Dual VOP, etc
  • PMU: RK808-D PMIC, cooperated with independent DC/DC, enabling DVFS, software power-down, RTC wake-up, system sleep mode
  • Flash: 32GB eMMC
  • Ethernet: one Native Gigabit Ethernet, and one PCIe Gigabit Ethernet
  • USB: two USB 3.0 Type-A ports
  • microSD Slot x 1
  • Debug: one Debug UART, 3 Pin 2.54mm header, 3V level, 1500000bps
  • LEDs: 1 x power LED and 3 x GPIO Controlled LED (SYS, LAN, WAN)
  • others:
    • 2 Pin 1.27/1.25mm RTC battery input connector
    • one User Button
    • one MASK Button for eMMC upgrade
    • one 5V Fan connector
  • Power supply: DC 5V/3A, via USB-C connector
  • PCB: 8 Layer, 66 mm x 66 mm
  • Temperature measuring range: 0℃ to 80℃

3 Diagram, Layout and Dimension

3.1 Layout

NanoPi R4SE Layout
  • Debug UART Pin Spec
3V level signals, 1500000bps
Pin# Assignment Description
1 GND 0V
2 UART2DBG_TX output
3 UART2DBG_RX intput
  • USB Port
Each USB 3.0 port has 2A overcurrent protection.
  • RTC
RTC backup current is 27uA.
Connector P/N: Molex 53398-0271
  1. Power Input : 5V/3A, via USB Type-C(USB PD Specification is not supported)

4 Get Started

4.1 Essentials You Need

Before starting to use your NanoPi-R4SE get the following items ready

  • NanoPi-R4SE
  • MicroSD Card/TF Card: Class 10 or Above, minimum 8GB SDHC
  • 5V/3A and above USB Type-C interface power adapter (Note: QC/PD fast charger may have compatibility issues), it is recommended to use the following or similar power adapter:
  • If you need to develop and compile,you need a computer that can connect to the Internet. It is recommended to install Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit system and use the following script to initialize the development environment:

4.2 TF Cards We Tested

Refer to: TFCardsWeTested

4.3 Configure parameters for serial port

Use the following serial parameters:

Baud rate 1500000
Data bit 8
Parity check None
Stop bit 1
Flow control None

4.4 Install OS

4.4.1 Flash to TF

Visit download linkto download image files (in the "01_Official images/01_SD card images" directory) and utilities (in the "05_Tools" directory):

Image Files
rk3399-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt image file, based on OpenWrt 21.02, kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-sd-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt image file, built-in docker, based on OpenWrt 21.02, kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-sd-friendlywrt-22.03-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt image file, based on OpenWrt 21.02, kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-sd-friendlywrt-22.03-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt image file, built-in docker, based on OpenWrt 21.02, kernel version 5.15.y 64-bit FriendlyCore Lite image file based on Ubuntu core 20.04 64bit, kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-sd-debian-bullseye-core-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 11(Bullseye) Core
No desktop environment, command line only
Kernel version 4.19.y
rk3399-sd-debian-bullseye-minimal-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 11(Bullseye) Desktop
Uses LXDE as default desktop
No pre-installed recommended software
Supports hardware acceleration
Kernel version 4.19.y
rk3399-sd-debian-bullseye-desktop-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 11(Bullseye) Desktop
Uses LXDE as default desktop
Pre-installed mpv, smplayer and chromium brower
Supports hardware acceleration
Kernel version 4.19.y
Other Image
Github Actions FriendlyWrt
Flash Utility:
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility. Under Linux users can use "dd"

The detailed steps are as follows:

  • Get an 8G SDHC card and backup its data if necessary;
  • Download and extract the xxx.img.gz and win32diskimager;
  • Run the win32diskimager utility under Windows as administrator. On the utility's main window select your SD card's drive, the wanted image file and click on "write" to start flashing the SD card. Under Linux run "dd" to flash the rkXXXX-sd-OSNAME-YYYYMMDD.img file to your SD card;
  • Take out the SD and insert it to NanoPi-R4SE's microSD card slot;
  • Power on NanoPi-R4SE and it will be booted from your TF card;

4.4.2 Install OS to eMMC Option 1: Install OS on Web Page

Get a TF card which has been installed with FriendlyWrt, log in FriendlyWrt on the web page, click on “System” ->”eMMC Tools”. Click on “Select file” to select your wanted image file, either an official image (the name might start with “rk3399-sd”) or a third party image. The file should be a “.gz” or “.img” file.
After a file is selected, click on “Upload and Write” to start installing an OS.
After installation is done, eject the SD card, the system will automatically reboot and load the OS from eMMC. After the OS begins to load, if the system LED is flashing and the network LED is on, it means the the OS has loaded successfully. If the OS is FriendlyWrt, you can click on “Go to Homepage” to enter the homepage.
Note that if you are burning the FriendlyElec firmware, you need to use an image file with the "-sd-" file name, similar to the one below:


If the file is in 7z, zip or rar format, you will need to extract it first. If the file is too large to write, you can compress it into .gz format and try again. Option 2: Install OS via TF Card Install OS to eMMC
  • This method firstly boots a mini Linux from a TF card and then automatically runs an EFlasher utility to install the OS to eMMC.
  • You can watch its progress by observing its LEDs as well.

Visit download link to download the needed utilities and image file:

Image File
rk3399-eflasher-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Based on OpenWrt 21.02
Kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-eflasher-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Pre-installed Docker
Based on OpenWrt 21.02
Kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-eflasher-friendlywrt-22.03-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Based on OpenWrt 22.03
Kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-eflasher-friendlywrt-22.03-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Pre-installed Docker
Based on OpenWrt 22.03
Kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-eflasher-debian-bullseye-core-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 11(Bullseye) Core
No desktop environment, command line only
Kernel version 4.19.y
rk3399-eflasher-debian-bullseye-minimal-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 11(Bullseye) Desktop
Uses LXDE as default desktop
No pre-installed recommended software
Supports hardware acceleration
Kernel version 4.19.y
rk3399-eflasher-debian-bullseye-desktop-4.19-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 11(Bullseye) Desktop
Uses LXDE as default desktop
Pre-installed mpv, smplayer and chromium brower
Supports hardware acceleration
Kernel version 4.19.y
rk3399-eflasher-friendlycore-lite-focal-5.15-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyCore
Minimal system
Based on Ubuntu core 20.04
kernel version 5.15.y
Flash Utility:
win32diskimager.rar Windows utility. Under Linux users can use "dd"

Here are the steps:

  • Get an SDHC card with a minimum capacity of 8G
  • Download a rk3399-eflasher-OSNAME-YYYYMMDD.img.gz image file and a win32diskimager;
  • Under Windows, run win32diskimager as administrator, select your SD card and extracted EFlasher image file, and click on “Write” to write image file on the SD card; or under Linux, you use the dd command to write the rk3399-eflasher-OSNAME-YYYYMMDD.img file to the SD card.
  • Eject your SD card and insert it to NanoPi-R4SE’s microSD card slot.
  • Turn on NanoPi-R4SE, it will boot from the SD card and automatically run EFlasher to install the OS to the board’s eMMC. You can observer the board’s LEDs to watch its installation progress
Progress SYS LED(Red) LAN LED(Green) WAN LED(Green)
Power On Solid On Off Off
System Boot Slow Flashing Off Off
Installation in Progress Fast Flashing Off Off
Installation Done Slow Flashing Solid On Solid On
  • After installation is done, power off the board, eject the SD card from NanoPi-R4SE, power on the board again, NanoPi-R4SE will load the OS from its eMMC Install Flash Image File to eMMC
  • Auto Install (Default Behavior)

1) Download an “eflasher” firmware from network drive, extract it and install it to a TF card ;
2) Eject and insert the TF card to your PC, after a “FriendlyARM” device shows up(Under Linux, it is a “FriendlyARM” directory), copy an .img or .gz file to the TF card.
3) Open the eflasher.conf file on the TF card, set “autoStart=” to the name of your image file, such as:


Anyone of the files that contain “-sd-” will work. Here is a list:


4) Eject the TF card, insert the TF card to NanoPi-R4SE, power it on it will automatically install your firmware. You can watch the installation progress by observing the LEDs’ status. Option 3: Install OS via USB Step 1: Install USB Driver and Tools/Utilities

Download a driver file under the “tools” directory from network drive, extract and install it.
Under the same directory, download a utility and extract it. Step 2: Connect NanoPi-R4SE to PC and Enter Installation Mode

1) Disconnect the connected USB cable and the power cord from NanoPi-R4SE, eject the TF card;
2) Press and hold the “Mask” key, power on the board. After the status LED has been on for at least 3 seconds, release the Mask key.
3) Use a USB A-to-A cable, connect NanoPi-R4SE to a PC as follows. Note: please pay attention to the USB port the USB cable is connected to in the screenshot.
Nanopir4se-usba-to-usba.jpg Step 3: Install image to eMMC

A firmware in general is packaged in either of the two options: the first is an whole image (ie, update.img) which is often offered by third party developers, the second is that an image is packaged and placed in multiple partition images. FriendlyElec offers an image in the latter option.

  • Option 1: Install whole image (ie, update.img)

On a PC which has the extracted RKDevTool_Release_v2.84 utility, go to the RKDevTool_Release_v2.84 directory, run the RKDevTool.exe file. If everything works, you will see a “Found a new Maskrom device” message on the utility;
Go to “Upgrade Firmware(升级固件)”, click on “Firmware(固件)”, select your wanted image file, and click on “Upgrade(升级)” to install. After installation is done, your board will reboot automatically and load the system from eMMC;

  • Option 2: Install OS that is packaged & placed in multiple partition images

Go to network drive to download your needed package and extract it.

Image File
rk3399-usb-friendlywrt-21.02-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Based on OpenWrt 21.02
Kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-usb-friendlywrt-21.02-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Pre-installed Docker
Based on OpenWrt 21.02
Kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-usb-friendlywrt-22.03-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Based on OpenWrt 22.03
Kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-usb-friendlywrt-22.03-docker-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyWrt
Pre-installed Docker
Based on OpenWrt 22.03
Kernel version 5.15.y
rk3399-usb-debian-bullseye-core-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 11(Bullseye) Core
No desktop environment, command line only
Kernel version 4.19.y
rk3399-usb-debian-bullseye-minimal-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 11(Bullseye) Desktop
Uses LXDE as default desktop
No pre-installed recommended software
Supports hardware acceleration
Kernel version 4.19.y
rk3399-usb-debian-bullseye-desktop-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz Debian 11(Bullseye) Desktop
Uses LXDE as default desktop
Pre-installed mpv, smplayer and chromium brower
Supports hardware acceleration
Kernel version 4.19.y
rk3399-usb-friendlycore-lite-focal-5.15-arm64-YYYYMMDD.img.gz FriendlyCore
Minimal system
Based on Ubuntu core 20.04
kernel version 5.15.y

After it is extracted, you will see some utilities and a configuration file under the directory. double click on RKDevTool.exe, you will see a “Found a new Maskrom device” message on the utility. Click on the “Execute”, wait a moment and it will be installed. After installation is done your system will automatically reboot and load the system from eMMC.

4.5 The Boot order between eMMC and SD card

By default, the system will be booted from the TF card first, but this is not the case under all conditions. This section will explain all situations in detail;

Refer to rockchip official document [1], there are two types of loader program:
1) U-Boot TPL/SPL (i.e. upsream U-Boot, also called mainline U-Boot)
2) Rockchip MiniLoader

Things to note:
1) FriendlyELEC's image uses Rockchip MiniLoader
2) The third-party image usually uses U-Boot TPL/SPL

The following situations will always start from eMMC:
If the system in the eMMC, or the system in the TF card uses the first Loader type U-Boot TPL/SPL, it will always boot from the eMMC;
If you want to boot from the TF card, there are the following methods:
Method 1: Clear the Loader on the eMMC, the clearing method is as follows, after starting from the eMMC, enter the following command on the command line to clear the Loader on the eMMC:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mmcblk2 bs=8M count=1

Method 2: Insert the TF card, Press Maskrom Key (or short-circuit the Maskrom contacts) and then power on (need to keep the short-circuit for about 3 seconds), it will start from the TF card

The summary is as follows:

eMMC current system TF card current system Boot priority
No system Any image TF card
FriendlyELEC's image FriendlyELEC's image TF card
FriendlyELEC's image Image with Mainline U-boot eMMC
Image with Mainline U-boot FriendlyELEC's image eMMC
Image with Mainline U-boot Image with Mainline U-boot eMMC

5 Work with FriendlyWrt

5.1 Introduction to FriendlyWrt

FriendlyWrt is a customized system made by FriendlyElec based on an OpenWrt distribution. It is open source and well suitable for developing IoT applications, NAS applications etc.

5.2 First boot

For the first boot, the system needs to do the following initialization work:
1)Extended root file system
2)Initial setup(will execute /root/
So you need to wait for a while (about 2~3 minutes) to boot up for the first time, and then set FriendlyWrt, you can enter the ttyd terminal on the openwrt webpage, when the prompt is displayed as root@FriendlyWrt, it means the system has been initialized.


5.3 Account & Password

The default password is password (empty password in some versions). Please set or change a safer password for web login and ssh login. It is recommended to complete this setting before connecting NanoPi-R4SE to the Internet.

5.4 Login FriendlyWrt

Connect the PC to the LAN port of NanoPi-R4SE. If your PC without a built-in ethernet port, connect the LAN port of the wireless AP to the LAN port of NanoPi-R4SE, and then connect your PC to the wireless AP via WiFi , Enter the following URL on your PC's browser to access the admin page:

The above is the LAN port address of NanoPi-R4SE. The IP address of the WAN port will be dynamically obtained from your main router through DHCP.

5.5 Recommended security settings

The following settings are highly recommended to complete before connecting NanoPi-R4SE to the Internet。

  • Set a secure password
  • Only allow access to ssh from lan, change the port
  • Only allow local devices to access luci

Edit /etc/config/uhttpd,Change the original and [::] addresses to the local lan address, for example:

	# HTTP listen addresses, multiple allowed
	list listen_http
	list listen_http	[fd00:ab:cd::1]:80
	# HTTPS listen addresses, multiple allowed
	list listen_https
	list listen_https	[fd00:ab:cd::1]:443

Restart the service:

/etc/init.d/uhttpd restart
  • Check the firewall settings

Set up as you wish.

5.6 Change LAN IP in LuCI

1) Click on Network → Interfaces, then click on the Edit button of the LAN Network;
2) In General Setup tab, input new IP address (for example:, click "Save" and then click "Save & Apply";
3) On the pop-up window with the title “Connectivity change“, click "Apply and revert on connectivity loss";
4) Wait a moment, enter the new address in your computer's browser and login to FriendlyWrt;

5.7 Safe shutdown operation

Enter the "Services" -> "Terminal", enter the "poweroff" command and hit enter, wait until the led light is off, and then unplug the power supply.

5.8 Soft Factory Reset

Enter "System"->"Backup/Flash firmware",Click “Perform reset“ Button, Your device's settings will be reset to defaults like when FriendlyWrt was first installed.
You can also do this in the terminal:

firstboot && reboot

5.9 Install Software Packages

5.9.1 Set up openwrt official opkg source

sed -i -e 's/' /etc/opkg/distfeeds.conf
opkg update

5.9.2 Update Package List

Before install software packages update the package list:

$ opkg update

5.9.3 List Available Packages

$ opkg list

5.9.4 List Installed Packages

$ opkg list-installed

5.9.5 Install Packages

$ opkg install <package names>

5.9.6 Remove Packages

$ opkg remove <package names>

5.10 Disable IPv6

. /root/

5.11 Configure the function of the user button

By default, the user button is configured to reboot the device, as shown below:

echo 'BTN_1 1 /sbin/reboot' >> /etc/triggerhappy/triggers.d/example.conf

You can change its behavior by changing the configuration file above.

5.12 Configuring Quectel EC20 (4G module) dial-up networking

  • Go to "Network" -> "Interfaces"
  • Click "Delete" next to "WAN6", then click "Save & Apply"
  • Click "Edit" next to "WAN", in the "Device" drop-down menu, select "Ethernet Adapter: wwan0", in the "Protocol" drop-down menu, select "QMI Cellular" and click "Switch Protocol"
  • Click the "Modem Device" drop-down menu, select "/dev/cdc-wdm0", fill in the APN information (e.g. for China Mobile, enter "cmnet")
  • Click "Save" to close the dialog, Finally, click "Save & Apply" at the bottom of the page to initiate the dial-up process
  • Devices connected to LAN will have access to the Internet, If your device has a WiFi module, you can enable wireless AP functionality on the "Wireless" page and connect to the Internet via devices connected wirelessly

5.13 Some common issues of FriendlyWrt

  • Unable to dial up
    • Go to "Network" -> "Firewall" and set "Inbound Data", "Outbound Data" and "Forwarding" in "WAN Zone" to "Accept";
    • If you still cannot access the Internet, you can try to turn off IPV6;
  • Dial-up successful, but no outgoing traffic
    • Go to "Services" -> "Terminal" and type "fw4 reload" to try to reload the firewall settings again;
  • Unable to power on
    • Try to replace the power adapter and cable. It is recommended to use a power supply with specifications above 5V/2A;
    • Note that some fast chargers with Type-C interface will have a delay, it may take a few seconds to start providing power;
  • When doing secondary routing, the computer cannot connect to the Internet
    • If your main network is IPv4, and NanoPi-R4SE works in IPv6, the computer may not be able to connect to the Internet. It is recommended to turn off IPv6 (the method is described later in this WiKi), or switch the main route to IPv6;
  • If you have questions or have better suggestions, please send an email to;

5.14 Use USB2LCD to view IP and temperature

Plug the USB2LCD module to the USB interface ofNanoPi-R4SE and power on, the IP address and CPU temperature will be displayed on the LCD:

5.15 How to Control Fan Speed for Cooling

(Note: The contents of this section are based on firmware released after 2021/08/31, kernel version kernel

  • The default behavior of the current PWM fan is: after a short wait (about 20 seconds) for power on, the fan will first work automatically for about 5 seconds, after which the behavior is driven by the kernel, which decides the fan on/off and the speed according to the CPU temperature.
  • The behavior of the fan can be changed by modifying the following script: /usr/bin/ For example, to change the CPU temperature when the fan starts working, you can change the following two lines:
echo 50000 > trip_point_3_temp  # Indicates that the fan starts working at the lowest speed when the CPU temperature reaches 50 degrees
echo 55000 > trip_point_4_temp  # Indicates that when the CPU temperature reaches 55 degrees, the fan rises to the second gear and above and automatically adjusts to the highest gear (4th gear) or reduces the speed according to the CPU cooling situation

As shown below, the cooling-levels define 4 levels, with 0 being off and the highest level being 255:

	fan: pwm-fan {
 		compatible = "pwm-fan";
-		/* FIXME: adjust leveles for the connected fan */
-		cooling-levels = <0 12 18 255>;
+		cooling-levels = <0 18 102 170 255>;
  • If you are using kernel version, the fan is operated by PWM at the application level to achieve temperature control, the above content is not applicable, you need to modify this script:

5.16 How to use USB WiFi

5.16.1 Check USB WiFi Device with Command Line Utility

(1) Click on "services>ttyd" to start the command line utility

(2) Make sure no USB devices are connected to your board and run the following command to check if any USB devices are connected or not


(3) Connect a USB WiFi device to the board and run the command again


You will see a new device is detected. In our test the device's ID was 0BDA:C811

(4) Type your device's ID (in our case it was "0BDA:C811" or "VID_0BDA&PID_C811") in a search engine and you may find a device that matches the ID. In our case the device we got was Realtek 8811CU.

5.16.2 Configure a USB WiFi Device as AP

(1) Connect a USB WiFi device to the NanoPi-R4SE. We recommend you to use the following devices:
Note: devices that match these VID&PIDs would most likely work.
(2) Click on "System>Reboot" and reboot your NanoPi-R4SE

(3) Click on "Network>Wireless" to enter the WiFi configuration page

(4) Click on "Edit" to edit the configuration

(5) On the "Interface Configuration" page you can set the WiFi mode and SSID, and then go to "Wireless Security" to change the password. By default the password is "password". After you make your changes click on "Save" to save

(6) After you change the settings you can use a smartphone or PC to search for WiFi

5.16.3 Common USB WiFi issues

1) It is recommended to plug in the usb wifi in the off state, then power it on, FriendlyWrt will automatically generate the configuration file /etc/config/wireless, if not, see if there is wlan0 by ifconfig -a, if there is no wlan0, usually there is no driver.
2) If ifconfig -a sees wlan0, but the hotspot is not working properly, try changing the channel and country code, an inappropriate country code can also cause the WiFi to not work.
3) Some USB WiFis (e.g. MTK MT7662) work in CD-ROM mode by default and need to be switched by usb_modeswitch, you can try to add usb_modeswitch configuration to the following directory: /etc/usb_modeswitch.d.

5.16.4 Change the default WiFi hotspot configuration

FriendlyWrt sets the country, hotspot name and other parameters for USB WiFi by default, with the aim of being as plug-and-play as possible, but this does not guarantee that all modules will be compatible with this setting, you can change these behaviors by modifying the following file:


5.17 Work with Docker Applications

5.17.1 Work with Docker: Install JellyFin

mkdir -p /jellyfin/config
mkdir -p /jellyfin/videos
docker run --restart=always -d -p 8096:8096 -v /jellyfin/config:/config -v /jellyfin/videos:/videos jellyfin/jellyfin:10.1.0-arm64 -name myjellyfin

After installation, visit port 8096 and here is what you would find:

5.17.2 Work with Docker: Install Personal Nextcloud

mkdir /nextcloud -p
docker run -d -p 8888:80  --name nextcloud  -v /nextcloud/:/var/www/html/ --restart=always --privileged=true  arm64v8/nextcloud

After installtion, visit port 8888.

5.17.3 Expand Docker Storage

  • Stop docker service first:
/etc/init.d/dockerd stop
  • Rename the original /opt directory, create an empty /opt directory:
mv /opt /opt-old && mkdir /opt
  • Format your drive as ext4, and mount it to the /opt directory:

Friendlywrt mount nvme opt-en.jpg

  • Enter the command "mount | grep /opt" to check the mount status:
root@FriendlyWrt:~# mount | grep /opt
/dev/nvme0n1p1 on /opt type ext4 (rw,relatime)
  • Copy the files from the original /opt directory to the new /opt directory:
cp -af /opt-old/* /opt/ && rm -rf /opt-old
  • Reboot the device
  • After reboot, go to the "Docker" -> "Overview" page, check the information in the "Docker Root Dir" line, you can see that the Docker space has been expanded:

Friendlywrt docker info-en.jpg

5.17.4 Docker FAQ and solutions Unable to access the network services provided by the Docker container


  • Go to the "Firewall" settings and set "Forwarding" to "Accept";
  • Turn off "Software Offload";

5.18 Mount smbfs

mount -t cifs // /movie -o username=xxx,password=yyy,file_mode=0644

5.19 Use sdk to compile the package

5.19.1 Install the compilation environment

Download and run the following script on 64-bit Ubuntu (version 18.04+): How to setup the Compiling Environment on Ubuntu bionic

5.19.2 Download and decompress sdk from the network disk

The sdk is located in the toolchain directory of the network disk:

tar xvf openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64.tar.xz
# If the path is too long, it will cause some package compilation errors, so change the directory name here
mv openwrt-sdk-*-rockchip-armv8_gcc-11.2.0_musl.Linux-x86_64 sdk
cd sdk
./scripts/feeds update -a
./scripts/feeds install -a

5.19.3 Compile the package

download the source code of the example (a total of 3 examples are example1, example2, example3), and copy to the package directory:

git clone
cp -rf openwrt-examples/example* package/
rm -rf openwrt-examples/

Then enter the configuration menu through the following command:

make menuconfig

In the menu, select the following packages we want to compile (actually selected by default):

"Utilities" => "example1"
"Utilities" => "example3"
"Network" => "VPN" => "example2"

execute the following commands to compile the three software packages:

make package/example1/compile V=99
make package/example2/compile V=99
make package/example3/compile V=99

After the compilation is successful, you can find the ipk file in the bin directory, as shown below:

$ find ./bin -name example*.ipk

5.19.4 Install the ipk to NanoPi

You can use the scp command to upload the ipk file to NanoPi:

cd ./bin/packages/aarch64_generic/base/
scp example*.ipk root@

Then use the opkg command to install them:

cd /root/
opkg install example3_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example1_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk
opkg install example2_1.0.0-220420.38257_aarch64_generic.ipk

5.20 Build FriendlyWrt using GitHub Actions

Please refre this link:

6 Work with FriendlyCore

6.1 FriendlyCore User Account

  • Non-root User:
   User Name: pi
   Password: pi
  • Root:
   User Name: root
   Password: fa

6.2 Update Software Packages

$ sudo apt-get update

6.3 Setup Network Configurations

6.3.1 Set static IP address

By default "eth0" is assigned an IP address obtained via dhcp. If you want to change the setting you need to change the following file:

vi /etc/network/interfaces.d/eth0

For example if you want to assign a static IP to it you can run the following commands:

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static

6.3.2 Set a DNS

You also need to modify the following file to add the DNS configuration:

vi /etc/systemd/resolved.conf

For example, set to


Restart the systemd-resolved service with the following command:

sudo systemctl restart systemd-resolved.service
sudo systemctl enable systemd-resolved.service

6.3.3 Set up to use another network interface

To change the setting of "eth1" you can add a new file similar to eth0's configuration file under the /etc/network/interfaces.d/ directory.

6.4 Setup Wi-Fi

First, use the following command to check if Network-Manager is installed on your system:

which nmcli

If you have installed it, refer to this link to connect to WiFi: Use NetworkManager to configure network settings, If you do not have Network-Manager installed on your system, please refer to the following method to configure WiFi,
By default the WiFi device is "wlan0". You need to create a configuration file under "/etc/network/interfaces.d/" for WiFi:

vi /etc/network/interfaces.d/wlan0

Here is a sample wlan0 file:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
wpa-driver wext
wpa-ssid YourWiFiESSID
wpa-ap-scan 1
wpa-proto RSN
wpa-pairwise CCMP
wpa-group CCMP
wpa-key-mgmt WPA-PSK
wpa-psk YourWiFiPassword

Please replace "YourWiFiESSID" and "YourWiFiPassword" with your WiFiESSID and password. After save and close the file you can connect to your WiFi source by running the following command:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart networking

After you power on your board it will automatically connect to your WiFi source.
Please note that if you use one TF card to boot multiple boards the WiFi device name will likely be named to "wlan1", "wlan2" and etc. You can reset it to "wlan0" by deleting the contents of the following file and reboot your board: /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules

6.4.1 WiFi models supported M.2 WiFi Module
  • RTL8822CE Usb Dongle
  • RTL8821CU (Vid: 0BDA, Pid: C811) (Test sample:TP-Link TL-WDN5200H)
  • RTL8812AU (Vid: 0BDA, Pid: 8812)
  • MediaTek MT7662 (Vid: 0E8D, Pid: 7612) (Test sample:COMFAST CF-WU782AC V2)

6.5 Install the kernel-header package

sudo dpkg -i /opt/linux-headers-*.deb

6.6 Build kernel-header deb package

Please refre to:

6.7 Config status LEDs

First determine whether the system already exists the leds initialization service:

sudo systemctl status leds

If the leds service already exists, change the default behavior of the LEDs by editing the following file:


Since there is no leds service in the early firmware, you need to refer to the following guide to manually configure the LEDs. First, set the following kernel modules to be automatically loaded at boot:

modprobe ledtrig-netdev
echo ledtrig-netdev > /etc/modules-load.d/ledtrig-netdev.conf

Put the following into the autorun script to associate the status leds with the ethernet interface, and you can configure it to behave in other ways by referring to these content:

echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/trigger
echo eth0 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/wan_led/link
echo netdev > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/trigger
echo eth1 > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/device_name
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/lan_led/link

7 Work with Debian11 Desktop

7.1 Introduction to Debian11 Desktop

Debian11 Desktop is a light-weighted debian desktop system,it has the following features:

  • Uses LXDE as default desktop;
  • Mali GPU-based OpenGL support;
  • Support Rockhip MPP video hard coding and hard decoding;
  • Pre-installed mpv and smplayer, both support 4K video hardware decoding;
  • Pre-installed Chromium browser, support vpu/gpu hardware acceleration (video hard decoding limited to h264/mp4 format);
  • Compatible with Plex Server and Docker;


7.2 Account & Password

Regular Account:
    User Name: pi
    Password: pi

    the root user account is disabled by default, you may configure the root password through the 'sudo passwd root' command.

7.3 View IP address

Since the Debian Bullseye hostname is the hardware model by default, you can use the ping command to get the IP address:ping NanoPi-R4SE

7.4 Connect to Debian via SSH

Run the following commandssh pi@NanoPi-R4SE
The default password is: pi

7.5 Update Software Packages

$ sudo apt-get update

7.6 Install x11vnc Server on Debian for Remote Access

7.6.1 Install x11vnc server

The following command to install x11vnc server:

sudo apt-get install x11vnc

7.6.2 Set your password

sudo x11vnc -storepasswd /etc/x11vnc.pwd

7.6.3 Setup x11vnc server with systemd auto start up

Create service configuration file:

sudo vi /lib/systemd/system/x11vnc.service

Let’s copy and paste the following configuration into our newly create service file:

Description=Start x11vnc at startup.
ExecStart=/usr/bin/x11vnc -display :0 -forever -loop -noxdamage -repeat -rfbauth /etc/x11vnc.pwd -rfbport 5900 -shared -capslock -nomodtweak
ExecStop=/usr/bin/x11vnc -R stop

The following commands to reload the systmd system and to enable and start the x11vnc service:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl enable x11vnc.service
sudo systemctl start x11vnc

7.6.4 Testing remote access

Start the VNC client software, input IP:5900 to connect:

7.7 Install the kernel-header package

sudo dpkg -i /opt/linux-headers-*.deb

try to compile a kernel module:

sudo apt update
sudo apt install git gcc make bc
git clone
cd RTL88x2BU-Linux-Driver
make -j$(nproc)
sudo make install
sudo modprobe 88x2bu

7.8 Change time zone

7.8.1 Check the current time zone


7.8.2 List all available time zones

timedatectl list-timezones

7.8.3 Set the time zone (e.g. Shanghai)

sudo timedatectl set-timezone Asia/Shanghai

7.9 Change startup LOGO and Wallpaper

Replace the following two files in the kernel source code directory and recompile the kernel:
Or use the script to operate, as shown below:

  • Download scripts:
git clone -b kernel-4.19 --single-branch
cd sd-fuse_rk3399
  • Compile kernel and repackage firmware
convert files/logo.jpg -type truecolor /tmp/logo.bmp
convert files/logo.jpg -type truecolor /tmp/logo_kernel.bmp
sudo LOGO=/tmp/logo.bmp KERNEL_LOGO=/tmp/logo_kernel.bmp ./ debian-bullseye-desktop-arm64
sudo ./ debian-bullseye-desktop-arm64
sudo ./ debian-bullseye-desktop-arm64

Note: If your system is not debian-bullseye-desktop-arm64, please specify according to the actual situation

7.9.2 Change Wallpaper

Modify the following configuration file:


7.10 Soft Factory Reset

Execute the following command in a terminal:

sudo firstboot && sudo reboot

7.11 Start the program automatically at startup(For example Kodi)

Put the desktop file in the ~/.config/autostart/ directory, for example:

mkdir ~/.config/autostart/
cp /usr/share/applications/kodi.desktop ~/.config/autostart/

7.12 Disable auto-mounting

sudo systemctl mask udisks2
sudo reboot

7.13 Setup Chinese language and Input method

7.13.1 Setup Chinese language

Enter the following command and select 'zh_CN.UTF-8':

sudo dpkg-reconfigure locales

Add environment variables to .bashrc:

echo "export LC_ALL=zh_CN.UTF-8" >> ~/.bashrc
echo "export LANG=zh_CN.UTF-8" >> ~/.bashrc
echo "export LANGUAGE=zh_CN.UTF-8" >> ~/.bashrc

Reboot device:

sudo reboot

7.13.2 Installing Chinese input method

Enter the following command to install fcitx and Pinyin input method:

sudo apt update
sudo apt-get install fcitx fcitx-pinyin
sudo apt-get install im-config
sudo apt-get install fcitx-table*
sudo apt-get install fcitx-ui-classic fcitx-ui-light
sudo apt-get install fcitx-frontend-gtk2 fcitx-frontend-gtk3 fcitx-frontend-qt4
sudo apt-get remove --purge scim* ibus*
sudo reboot

After reboot, press Ctrl+Space to switch between Chinese and English input methods, and the input method icon will appear in the upper right corner, right-click the input method icon in the upper right corner to switch input methods in the pop-up menu, as shown below:

7.14 Installing Plex Multimedia Server

Visit the Plex website:
On the download page, select the category "Plex Media Server", choose "Linux" for the platform and "Ubuntu(16.04+)/Debian(8+) - ARMv8" for the version,
After downloading the deb package, use the dpkg command to install the package:

sudo dpkg -i plexmediaserver_1.31.0.6654-02189b09f_arm64.deb

After installation, login to the Plex server by typing the following URL into your computer browser: http://IP地址:32400/web/

7.15 Install Docker on Debian

Please refer to: How to Install Docker on Debian

8 Work with Debian10 Desktop

9 Buildroot Linux

Buildroot is a simple, efficient and easy-to-use tool to generate embedded Linux systems through cross-compilation. It contains a boot-loader, kernel, rootfs, various libraries and utilities(e.g. qt, gstreamer, busybox etc).

FriendlyELEC's Buildroot is based on Rockchip's version which is made with linux-sdk and maintained with git. FriendlyELEC's version is synced with Rockchip's version;

For a more detailed description of the Buildroot system, please refer to: Buildroot

10 How to Compile

10.1 Build Openwrt/Friendlywrt

10.1.1 Download Code

Two versions are available, please choose as required: FriendlyWrt 21.02
mkdir friendlywrt21-rk3399
cd friendlywrt21-rk3399
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v21.02 \
        -m rk3399.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle FriendlyWrt 22.03.2
mkdir friendlywrt22-rk3399
cd friendlywrt22-rk3399
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v22.03 \
        -m rk3399.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle

10.1.2 First compilation step

./  # or

All the components (including u-boot, kernel, and friendlywrt) are compiled and the sd card image will be generated, then execute the following command to generate the image file for installing the system into the emmc:

./ emmc-img

After making changes to the project, the sd card image needs to be repackaged by running the following command:

./ sd-img

10.1.3 Secondary compilation steps

cd friendlywrt
make menuconfig
rm -rf ./tmp
make -j${nproc}
cd ../
./ sd-img
./ emmc-img

10.2 Build u-boot only

./ uboot

10.3 Build kernel only

./ kernel

10.4 Build friendlywrt only

./ friendlywrt

Or go to the friendlywrt directory and follow the standard openwrt commands. If you get an error with the above command, try using the following command to compile in a single thread:

cd friendlywrt
make -j1 V=s

11 Backup rootfs and create custom SD image (to burn your application into other boards)

11.1 Backup rootfs

Run the following commands on your target board. These commands will back up the entire root partition:

sudo passwd root
su root
cd /
tar --warning=no-file-changed -cvpzf /rootfs.tar.gz \
    --exclude=/rootfs.tar.gz --exclude=/var/lib/docker/runtimes \
    --exclude=/etc/firstuser --exclude=/etc/friendlyelec-release \
    --exclude=/usr/local/first_boot_flag --one-file-system /

11.2 Making a bootable SD card from a root filesystem

Only support RK3328/RK3399/RK3568/RK3588

12 Configuring kernel command line parameters

12.1 eMMC Boot

Here are the steps:
Make an eflahser bootable SD card (use the firmware file starting with rk3xxxx-eflasher-),
Insert the SD card into your computer, go to the SD card's OS-related directory, and edit the file parameter.txt, which is a text file containing command-line parameters,
Then boot from the SD card and burn the system to the eMMC.

12.2 SD Boot

To modify the command line parameters of the SD card, you need to repackage the SD card image file,
you can use the sd-fuse script we provide to assist packaging:

Only support RK3328/RK3399/RK3568/RK3588

13 Make Your Own OS Image

14 Link to Rockchip Resources

15 Schematic, PCB CAD File

16 Update Log

16.1 2023-05-26

16.1.1 FriendlyWrt

  • Updated v22.03 to openwrt-22.03.5
  • Updated v21.02 to openwrt-21.02.7

16.2 2023-04-26

16.2.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgrade v22.03 to openwrt-22.03.4
  • Upgrade v21.02 to openwrt-21.02.6

16.3 2023-02-10

16.3.1 Added Debian11

There are three versions:

  • Debian11 Core: Command-line only
  • Debian11 Minimal: With Xfce desktop, lite version
  • Debian11 Desktop: With Xfce desktop, full version

16.4 2023-01-09

16.4.1 FriendlyCore:

  • optimized the systemd service

16.5 2022-12-04

16.5.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Fix the issue that the storage space cannot be expanded
  • Improve stability of the eMMC Tools

16.6 2022-09-06

16.6.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Improved eMMC read performance of NanoPi-R4SE
  • Added Fullcone NAT support
  • upgrade to 22.03.0
  • Fix NanoPC-T4 eMMC stability issue

16.7 2022-08-03

16.7.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgrade FriendlyWrt to the latest version 22.03-rc6
  • Fixed the problem that the R4S/R4SE may not recognize the pcie device (lan port) after a soft reboot (small probability)
  • Fixed the issue where the R4SE status led did not reflect the burn progress when burning the system to eMMC
  • Firewall settings adjustment: single-port devices (e.g. NanoPi-T4/NanoPi-M4) are set to allow WAN inbound traffic by default for easy web configuration, while multi-port devices are still denied WAN inbound traffic by default
  • Updated FriendlyWrt firmware with 4.19 kernel to match FriendlyWrt 21.02 docker with 5.15 kernel

16.8 2022-07-27

16.8.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Beta version 22.03-rc3 is available, you can choose according to your package requirements, stable version 21.02.3 is recommended.
  • Both docker and non-docker versions are available, all features are the same except for docker.
  • Improved compatibility issues with third-party packages
  • Added support for "Soft Factory Reset" function
  • Added web-based tool eMMC-Tools, support install FriendlyElec and some third party firmware to eMMC, besides raw-image also support rockchip package format firmware
  • Other details: default timezone setting to Shanghai, new NAS category menu, remove lcd2usb, improve security settings, tune sysctl parameters, fix docker firewall settings, etc.
  • Add support for new hardware model: NanoPi-R4SE

16.9 2021-10-29

16.9.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • FriendlyWrt has been updated to the official stable version 21.02.1, features are basically the same as 19.07.5, support docker, usb wifi, etc.

16.10 2021-08-31

16.10.1 FriendlyWrt:

  • Upgraded kernel to 5.10.60
  • Add a high-speed 5G USB WiFi support, the network card model is Comfast CF-WU782AC V2, the chip model is MediaTek MT7662
  • Improved USB WiFi compatibility
  • Improved PWM fan support, fan controlled by kernel drive, temperature control support(Please search for "PWM fans" on the R4S WiKi page for details)
  • Improved stability on first boot (previous version, bpfilter error occurred in some cases on first boot)

16.11 2020-12-23

  • FriendlyWrt has been updated to the official stable version 19.07.5