How to Build FriendlyWrt

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1 Introduction to FriendlyWrt

FriendlyWrt is a customized OpenWrt system developed by FriendlyElec. It is open source and suitable for applications in IoT, NAS and etc.

2 User Name & Password

No password set default, please configure a root password to protect the web interface and enable SSH.

3 Supported FriendlyElec Boards

OS Version Supported Board Types Image File Download Link
FriendlyWrt for H3 19.07.1 NanoPi-R1S, NanoPi-R1, NanoPi-NEO, NanoPi-NEO-Air,
NanoPi-M1, ZeroPi, NanoPi-NEO-S,
NanoPi-NEO-Core, NanoPi-M1-Plus, NanoPi-Duo2 H3 Download Link
FriendlyWrt for H5 19.07-snapshot NanoPi-NEO2,NanoPi-K1-Plus,NanoPi-NEO-Core2 H5 Download Link
FriendlyWrt for S5P4418 19.07-snapshot NanoPi-Fire2A, NanoPC-T2, NanoPi-S2,
NanoPi-M2A, Smart4418 S5P4418 Download Link
FriendlyWrt for S5P6818 19.07-snapshot NanoPi-Fire3, NanoPC-T3, Smart6818 S5P6818 Download Link
FriendlyWrt for RK3399 21.02.5 / 23.05 All FriendlyElec's RK3399 based boards, including NanoPi-M4v2, NanoPi-M4B, Som-RK3399 RK3399 Download Link
FriendlyWrt for RK3328 21.02.5 / 23.05 NanoPi-R2S, NanoPi-R2C, NanoPi-R2C-Plus RK3328 Download Lin
FriendlyWrt for RK3568 21.02.5 / 23.05 NanoPi-R5S RK3568下载链接
FriendlyWrt for RK3588 21.02.5 / 23.05 NanoPi-R6S RK3588下载链接

How to test the image: extract the image file, use the "dd" command under Linux or the win32image utility under Windows to flash the image to an SD card.

4 Get Source Code

4.1 Install repo

Firstly you need to install the repo utility:

git clone --depth 1
sudo cp repo/repo /usr/bin/

4.2 Download Source Code

There are two ways to obtain the source code. For mainland Chinese users the first is recommended:

4.2.1 One: Use Repo Package from FriendlyElec's Cloud Storage

The source files are located at the "sources/friendlywrt-CPU-YYYYMMDD.tar" directory in FriendlyElec's cloud storage. "CPU" stands for an SoC model and YYYYMMDD stands for date(the year, month and day) in which the package is packed.
After you get a repo package run the following command to extract it. Let's take an image for Allwinner H3 based boards as an example:

tar xvf /path/to/netdisk/sources/friendlywrt-h3-20190101.tar
cd friendlywrt-h3
repo sync -l --no-clone-bundle

Now you have had the full source code for generating an image. The last number digits in the file name stand for the packing date. If you want to obtain the latest official release, remove "-l" and do "repo sync" again:

cd friendlywrt-h3
repo sync --no-clone-bundle

4.2.2 Two: Get Source Code from Github H3 Based Boards
mkdir friendlywrt-h3
cd friendlywrt-h3
repo init -u -b master-v19.07.1 -m h3.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle H5 Based Boards
mkdir friendlywrt-h5
cd friendlywrt-h5
repo init -u -b master \
        -m h5.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle S5P4418 Based Boards
mkdir friendlywrt-s5p4418
cd friendlywrt-s5p4418
repo init -u -b master \
        -m s5p4418.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle S5P6818 Based Boards
mkdir friendlywrt-s5p6818
cd friendlywrt-s5p6818
repo init -u -b master \
        -m s5p6818.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle RK3399 Based Boards
mkdir friendlywrt23-rk3399
cd friendlywrt23-rk3399
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v23.05 \
        -m rk3399.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle RK3328 Based Boards
mkdir friendlywrt23-rk3328
cd friendlywrt23-rk3328
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v23.05 \
        -m rk3328.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle RK3568 Based Boards
mkdir friendlywrt23-rk3568
cd friendlywrt23-rk3568
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v23.05 \
        -m rk3568.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle RK3588 Based Boards
mkdir friendlywrt23-rk3588
cd friendlywrt23-rk3588
git clone --depth 1 tools
tools/repo init -u -b master-v23.05 \
        -m rk3588.xml --repo-url=  --no-clone-bundle
tools/repo sync -c  --no-clone-bundle

4.2.3 Get Latest Release With "Sync"

repo sync -c --no-clone-bundle

If synchronization is interrupted you can run the following script to do sync again:

#! /bin/bash
repo sync -c --no-clone-bundle
while [ $? -ne 0 ]; 
    repo sync -c --no-clone-bundle

4.2.4 Swtich To Different Platform

If you have been working on the source code for Allwinner H3's boards and want to swtich to the source code for Allwinner H5's boards you can do it this way:

cp -af friendlywrt-h3 friendlywrt-h5
cd friendlywrt-h5
repo init -m h5.xml
repo sync --force-sync

5 Compile Source Code

5.1 Setup Development Environment

You need a host PC running a 64-bit Ubuntu 20.04 system and run the following command on the PC:

wget -O - | bash

5.2 Build buildroot in Docker container

Please use the Docker image provided by this link, for details, please refer to the README document:

5.3 Get Help Info

Run the script without any options it will print the help information:


Let's take Allwinner H3 as an example, the help information will be presented as follows:

USAGE: ./ <parameter>
# Select Board Type:
# Select Module:
  ./ all                -compile all
  ./ uboot              -compile uboot
  ./ kernel             -compile kernel
  ./ friendlywrt        -compile friendlywrt
  ./ sd-img             -generate an image for an sd card
  ./ emmc-img           -generate an image for emmc (the generated image should be flased to an SD card and then flashed to emm with this SD card)
# Clean:
  ./ cleanall

5.4 Auto Compile

For a first time compilation you need to select an SoC platform. Let's take the NanoPi R1(Allwinner H3) as an example:


After the script is done successfully all components including a u-boot, a kernel and a friendlywrt will be compiled, and an image file will be generated.

5.5 Compile Individual Component

5.5.1 kernel

./ kernel

5.5.2 u-boot

./ uboot

5.5.3 FriendlyWrt

method 1:

./ friendlywrt

method 2:

cd friendlywrt
./scripts/feeds update -a 
./scripts/feeds install -a 
cp ../configs/config_XXXX .config
make defconfig
make download -j8
make -j8

5.6 Generate Image for SD Card

sudo ./ sd-img

If an img file is generated successfully you will see the following messages. You can use the "dd" command to flash the img file to an SD card. Note: you will need to replace "/dev/sdX" with the actual device name which your system recognizes the device as:

Run the following for sdcard install:
    sudo dd if=out/FriendlyWrt_20190828_NanoPi-R1_armhf_sd.img bs=1M of=/dev/sdX

5.7 Generate emmc (eflasher) Image

sudo ./ emmc-img

If an img file is generated successfully you will see the following messages. You can use the "dd" command to flash the img file to an SD card. Note: you will need to replace "/dev/sdX" with the actual device name which your system recognizes the device as:

Run the following for sdcard install:
    sudo dd if=out/FriendlyWrt_20190828_NanoPi-R1_armhf_eflasher.img bs=1M of=/dev/sdX

Use this SD card to boot the eflasher system and run eflasher commands to install an OS to emmc. After installation is done, take off the SD card of the board and boot your system friendlywrt will load from eMMC.

6 Make Your Own Friendlywrt

6.1 Structure of Source Code Directories

├── friendlywrt
│   ├── friendlywrt -> friendlywrt's source code
│   └── configs -> save the "friendlywrt defconfig" file
│   └── toolchain -> cross-compiler, used for compiling a u-boot and kernel
│   ├── -> script for auto-compile
│   ├── device/friendlyelec -> configuration file for friendlyelec boards
│   ├── kernel -> kernel
│   └── u-boot -> u-boot
│   └── scripts -> script files for generating an img

6.2 Configure friendlywrt Components

  • Configure by Using Make Menuconfig(H3)
cd friendlywrt-h3/friendlywrt
make menuconfig
  • Save Your Configurations
make menuconfig
./scripts/ > ../configs/my_config
  • Set Your Configurations As Default

Let's take the NanoPi-R1 as an example and edit the following file:


Set TARGET_FRIENDLYWRT_CONFIG to your configurations.

  • Recompile Friendlywrt and Generate Image for SD Card
./ friendlywrt
./ sd-img

6.3 Put Your Add-on Features to Friendlywrt

Let's take H3 as an example. Put your files and directories to the following directory and they will be compiled to an img file.


Or you can put your files and directories in a new directory. Let's take the NanoPi-R1 as an example and edit the following file:


Open the file and add a new line(replace "XXX" with your directory):


6.4 Change Friendlywrt's Default Configurations(Network, Firewall Etc)

Open and edit the following files:


6.5 Change U-boot and Kernel's Configurations(H3)

Open and edit the following file:


Change uboot's settings to your own by making the following changes:


Change kernel's settings to your own by making the following changes:


6.6 Change Other COnfigurations

Open and edit the following xml file and you can replace the source code of kernel, uboot and friendlywrt yo your own code:


For more details about what each item in the xml file means, refer to:repo Manifest Format
After you make your changes you need to do "repo" to sync and make the changes effective. For example after you change the kernel's source code you need to run the following command to sync:

repo sync --force-sync kernel

After synchronization you just need to recompile the kernel's source code:

./ kernel

6.7 Repacking firmware after editing

After compiling FriendlyWrt, you can get a copy of the filesystem contents (directory named rootfs) with the following command:

export KEEP_CACHE=1
./ sd-img
cd scripts/sd-fuse
rm -rf ./rootfs
cp -r out/rootfs.* ./rootfs

Repacking firmware after editing:

./ $PWD/rootfs friendlywrt
./ friendlywrt

7 Tips

7.1 Visit FriendlyWrt management page

Enter http://friendlywrt/ or the IP address on the computer browser to enter the FriendlyWrt management page. By default, the IP address of the LAN port is, and the WAN will dynamically obtain an IP address from your main router.

7.2 mount smbfs resource

mount -t cifs // /movie -o username=xxx,password=yyy,file_mode=0644

8 Common Issues and Tips

  • When you compile a source code under Ubuntu you cannot do it as root and you need to do it as a non-root user
  • Compilation in VNC may not succeed

9 Resources

repo guidance

10 Report bug


11 Update Log

11.1 2023-10-25

  • Rockchip platform: upgrade FriendlyWrt to 23.05

11.2 2021-10-29

  • RK33xx platform: upgrade FriendlyWrt to 21.02.1, features are basically the same as 19.07.5, support docker, usb wifi, etc.

11.3 2021-08-31

  • Add a high-speed 5G USB WiFi support, the network card model is Comfast CF-WU782AC V2, the chip model is MediaTek MT7662
  • Improved USB WiFi compatibility
  • Improved PWM fan support (RK3399 platform), fan controlled by kernel drive, temperature control support(Please search for "PWM fans" on the R4S WiKi page for details)
  • Improved stability on first boot (previous version, bpfilter error occurred in some cases on first boot)

11.4 2021-01-14

11.4.1 RK3328 FriendlyWrt:

  • RK3328 FriendlyWrt has been updated to the official stable version 19.07.5

11.5 2020-12-24

  • RK3399 FriendlyWrt has been updated to the official stable version 19.07.5, which provides two versions of the kernel:
    • Mainline kernel-5.10 for NanoPi-R4S, NanoPC-T4, NanoPC-M4v1, NanoPi-NEO4
    • Rockchip kernel-4.19 for All FriendlyElec's RK3399 based boards

11.6 2020-02-20

  • Optimized openssl performance
  • Added support for PWM fan, support fan speed control (platform: rk33xx)

11.7 2019-09-06

  • Released English version